Are The Flow Plugs Necessary In A Water Softner Reverse Osmosis System

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Reverse Osmosis System

Reverse osmosis is a process that finds application in water purification.

A reverse osmosis system consists of a series of tubes with a stack of spiral wound membranes. These tubes are mounted on high pressure containers. A membrane stack consists of two very long semi-permeable membranes, with a mesh, sealed at the sides. It is wound into a spiral tube with another mesh to separate the outside of the stack. The spiral winding provides a very large surface for transfer.

Between each membrane layer is a mesh separator that allows pure water to flow without obstruction. Water is forced through one end of the spiral cylinder and discharged through the other end. The resulting pressure forces water through the membrane and accumulates in the space between the membranes. Purified water flows around the spiral and is collected in the center of the tube.

A typical reverse osmosis system consists of a holding tank with a level control that feeds the reverse osmosis pump. It also has a reverse osmosis water storage tank with level controls and duplex pumps for water pressure. High-pressure gauges are installed on the reverse osmosis output pump and the concentrate pump. Pressure switches are installed on the reverse osmosis feed and flow monitors are installed on the concentrate, permeate and recycle streams. The cleaning cycle is automated in larger systems with automatic valves.

All systems designed to remove suspended solids, water hardness, chlorine and other oxidizers require pretreatment. Calcium and magnesium deposits can plug the membrane. Chemicals or water softeners are added to water to keep solids in suspension. A water softener is used to remove hard ions and replace them with sodium.

In order to perform consistently well, reverse osmosis systems require regular maintenance and replacement of various components. Pre-filters and post-filters must be changed regularly. The interval between pre-filter changes will depend on water quality, particularly solids concentration. Contaminants, membrane rejection percentage and activated carbon removal efficiency determine when the post-filter should be replaced.

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