Analyze Test And Improve The Basic Route Creation Flow The Tupolev Tu-144 Supersonic Transport

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The Tupolev Tu-144 Supersonic Transport

1. Tupolev Tu-104:

Although three major powers, the US, the Europeans, and the former-USSR, designed supersonic transports, the latter was the first to fly them. But its development was complicated and ultimately failed.

Seeking to increase speed and reduce travel time on scheduled routes flown by Aeroflot, the country moved to pure-jet technology with its first such aircraft, the Tupolev Tu-104, when it first flew in prototype form on June. 17, 1955.

Low-wing monoplane, incorporating many elements of the military Tu-16 twin turbojet bomber to reduce development time, featuring a glazed nose navigator station, a 35-degree swept wing, significant anhedral, double wing root buried, 14,881 thumb pounds Mikulin RD- 3 or AM-3 eight-stage, axial-flow turbojets, and quad-wheel main undercarriage units that are retracted into wing underside fairings. Although the initial capacity was 50, 70-passenger Tu-104As and 100-passenger Tu-104Bs, in a five-abreast configuration, followed.

Entering service on the Moscow-Umsk-Irkutsk route on 15 September 1956, it seriously reduced the flight duration over the piston variants it replaced.

According to “Soviet Transport Aircraft Since 1945” (Putnam & Co., Ltd., 1968, p. 199), “the de Havilland Comet 1 and 1A types were withdrawn from service in 1954. By the fall of 1958, BOAC had comet 4s and the Pan American World Airways Boeing 707-120s were introduced.”

Like the West, the former Soviet Union believed that supersonic transport was the next logical development of commercial aviation.

2. Mysishchev M-52:

The foundation of Russian supersonic transport was laid by the M-52 Intercontinental Bomber of the Myshichev Design Bureau. Powered by four Solovy’ev turbojets, two of which were pylon-mounted, swept wings and two of which were attached to their tips, they were for a minimum Mach 2 cruise speed.

The only publicly built example appeared in Tuscany in 1961, or a year after the design bureau that gave birth to it was disbanded, as its commercial feasibility study began. While its high-wing configuration was considered unsuitable for passenger-carrying services and its range insufficient for such operations, this logic, at least in the Soviet Union, was better than might first be believed, as both turboprop Tupolev Tu-114. and the pure-jet Tu-104 were civilian versions of the Tu-95 and Tu-16 bombers, respectively.

3. Tupolev Tu-144:

An all-new supersonic design was clearly required. Because Mysichev’s proposal was ill-advised and Ilyushin was busy fixing problems with its Il-62 long-range, pure-jet airliner, Tupolev, the country’s longtime military and commercial manufacturer, was chosen.

As a result, the Tu-144 was one of the few aircraft up to this time designed initially and exclusively for commercial operations.

Powered by four 38,500 thrust-pound engines, the aircraft has an overall length of 188.5-feet, an 83.10-foot span of its delta wing, and a 330,000-pound gross weight. Although similar in prototype form and configuration to the Concorde as expected, there were many differences between the two.

The fuselage first and foremost incorporated 18 percent titanium in its construction to accommodate the expected expansion and contraction cycles caused by frictional heat build-up and internal pressure, and was wider, with a flatter cabin floor, for a five-seater. Coach seating. Its single-drop nose, swiveling to a 12-degree position, sported a top window.

In planform, its double-delta wing had an ogival or S-shaped leading edge and trailing edge elevons, but a flat bottom with no camber or twist.

Its NK-144 turbojets, grouped in barely separated pairs, fed air through its six-foot rectangular inlets at the leading edge and spread over 17 feet to its exhaust pipes.

The undercarriage consists of a two-wheel, retracting nose unit and two 12-wheel, forward-retracting main units mounted outside the engine ducts and rotating 180 degrees before settling into their airfoil bays.

After the first flight from Moscow’s Zhukovsky Airfield completed a 25-second acceleration roll—which marked the world’s first commercial supersonic flight of any design—the prototype, number 68001, remained in the air for 28 minutes, its landing gear extended the entire time. Unpressurized, they carried flight test equipment internally.

Although no photographs were released at the time, it is believed that the second airframe, number 68002, was damaged during its own flight and the third, 68003, was used for static testing.

The lack of fuel thirst and range, the kind that required consistent, 100-passenger load factors to meet breakeven costs, necessitated an extensive redesign of the production version, which more closely mirrored the Concorde.

The fuselage, now stretched to 215.5-feet in length and sporting 34 as opposed to the previous 25 windows, accommodated up to 140, and its curved nose introduced longer, side windows.

Two canards, installed on the upper fuselage behind the cockpit, extended outward and forward to improve the aircraft’s low-speed handling characteristics.

A compound swept, full delta wing, with a span of 94.5 feet, was provided with variable camber and sculpting, and a rounded underside.

The engines, with square inlets, were positioned further outwards and had greater separation between their pairs, while the main undercarriage units, shorter in length, were retracted between them.

Range, with a 33,000-pound payload, was projected as 2,000 miles.

Numbered 77101, the first prototype of this extensively redesigned version first flew in August 1972, while the second, 77102, was the first prototype to be displayed in the West at the 1973 Paris Air Show. But his pride was short-lived.

During a demonstration flight on June 3, the aircraft made a low pass with its canard surfaces and undercarriage extended, before completing a steep, afterburner-enhanced climb. Appearing to experience a stall at 3,000 feet, however, he began a dive, suddenly leveling off a few feet above the ground, at which point the right wing tore off at the root.

Flames spewed from its engine, it rolled over and the second wing ejected from the structure. The explosion crashed to Earth, killing six crew members on board, eight on the ground, and damaging over a hundred buildings in Gaussinville, France.

Although no official cause was found, it was believed that the Tu-144 attempted to land on the wrong runway, initiating a go-around when the error was detected, putting it on a collision course with the Mirage fighter. Diving to avoid it, it was subjected to G-forces far beyond the airframe’s capability and remained at too low a height to recover. Its structural failure was therefore not attributed to any design flaw or deficiency.

After operating cargo and mail route proving flights between December 1975 and 1976, the Tupolev Tu-144 entered 2,400-mile service between Moscow and Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan, on 1 November of the following year, flying 102 such services. with an average of 70 passengers before it closed on June 6, 1978. The aircraft logged 181 air hours, 102 of which were at subsonic speeds.

Despite its extensive redesign, it failed to overcome its shortcomings. Still extremely fuel-thirsty, it was only able to cover a 2,400-mile route with half its payload capacity, which was caused by deliberately leaving the canteen half empty and cabin noise levels, which were caused by the engine and external air-conditioning systems. , skin friction produces heat, unbearable.

While promising when first flown on 23 May 1978, subsequent Tu-144Ds, fitted with the uprated, more economical Kolisov RD-36-51A turbine, fared little better. The left engine fire, spreading to the fuselage, left insufficient power to reach an alternate airport, causing the aircraft to crash into a field and explode. Of the five crew members on board, two were killed and three were injured.

The type began proving flights on the 3,480-mile sector from Moscow to Khabarovsk on 23 June of the following year, completing the distance in three hours, 21 minutes, although it never proceeded as planned. One prototype, two pre-production, nine production Tu-144s, and five production Tu-144Ds are just testaments that supersonic flight noise, fuel consumption, and range parameters cannot be exceeded for commercial operations. This fact.

4. Tupolev Tu-144LL:

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has launched a joint international research program over a five-year period with the US and Russian aerospace industries to develop technologies suitable for early 21st century supersonic transport that will overcome the obstacles faced by all three. Boeing 2707, Aerospatiale-British Aerospace Concorde and Tupolev Tu-144 real and still-born designs.

Organized as part of NASA’s High Speed ​​Research (HSR) program and managed by NASA Langley Research Center, the project was launched following the signing of a June 1994 agreement by US Vice President Al Gore, Jr. and Russian Prime Minister Viktor Kemoardin.

Its cornerstone was the last Tu-144D, built in 1981 and sporting tail number 77114, which itself never entered commercial service, but logged 82 hours, 40 minutes during research and test flights. Originally powered by four Kolisov RD-36-51 turbojets, which provided for a maximum speed of Mach 2.15/1,450-mph at a 59,000-foot service ceiling, its range was less than 2,500 miles.

A modification of the Tu-144LL flying laboratory standard for the joint program, it was powered by four 55,000-thrust-pound Kuznetsov, afterburner-equipped NK-321 turbofans originally designed for the Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack bomber, resulting in a speed of 2350 and Mach 2350. Nautical mile range with 224,000 pounds of fuel at a 410,000-pound maximum takeoff weight.

Other changes include thermocouples, pressure sensors, microphones and skin friction gauges to measure the aerodynamic boundary layer, an emergency crew escape system and a Damien digital data collection system that replaced the previous analogue.

The first two-phase program, which ran from June 1996 to February 1998 at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, consisted of two ground engines and six flight tests, requiring the completion of 19 air flights and related studies. The external surface of the aircraft, internal structure and powerplant, temperature, boundary airflow, internal and external noise, airfoil ground effect characteristics and different flight profile handling characteristics.

A second phase between September 1998 and April 1999 saw six fights, which not only facilitated further understanding of the original six aerial experiments but also provided analysis of fuselage and wind deflection, angle of attack, sideslip angle. , and nose boom pressure.

Although no genuine US supersonic airliner designs have been established, and it is highly likely that those suitable for the commercial jet segment will precede them, the Tu-144LL aerodynamic, structural, acoustic and operating environment experiments may pave the way for long-range, high-capacity, ozone Economic battle reducing layer degradation and the sonic boom experienced on the ground.

Article source

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) website.

Stroud, John. “Soviet transport aircraft since 1945.” London: Putnam and Company, Ltd., 1968.

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