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Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors
Metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are incredibly popular transistors that resemble JFETs in some ways. For example, when a small voltage is applied to its gate lead, current flows through its drain-source channel. However, unlike JFETS, MOSFETs have large gate lead input impedances (≥1014 Ω, compared to 109 Ω for JFETs), which means that they draw almost no gate current. Increasing the input impedance is possible by placing a metal oxide insulator between the gate-drain/source channel. This increased amount of input impedance comes at a cost, which dissipates the gate-to-channel capacitance (a few pF) through the gate and MOSFET. (Some MOSFETs are designed to protect against this breakdown—but not all.) Both enhancement-type and depletion-type MOSFETs come in either n-channel or p-channel form.
MOSFETs are probably the most popular transistors used today; They draw very low input current, are easy to manufacture (requires few components), can be made extremely small, and consume very little power. In terms of applications, MOSFETs are used in ultrahigh input impedance amplifier circuits, voltage-controlled “resistor” circuits, switching circuits, and are found in many integrated digital ICs. Like JFETs, MOSFETs have smaller transconductance values than bipolar transistors. In case of amplifier applications, this can lead to lower gain values. For this reason, you rarely see MOSFETs in simple amplifier circuits, unless very high input impedance and low input current characteristics are required.
OHMIC REGION MOSFET has just started resisting. In this region, the MOSFET behaves like a resistor.
The active region MOSFET is most affected by the gate-source voltage (VGS) but not much by the drain-source voltage (VDS).
The cutoff voltage (VGS, OFF) is often referred to as the pinch-off voltage (VP). represents the specific gate-source voltage at which the MOSFET blocks almost all drain-source current flow.
Breakdown Voltage (BVDS) The drain source voltage (VDS) that causes current to “break through” the MOSFET’s resistive channel.
Drain current for zero BIAS (IDSS) represents the drain current when the gate source voltage is zero volts (or when the gate is shorted to the source).
TRANSCONDUCTANCE (gm) represents the rate of change in drain current with change in gate-source voltage when the drain-source voltage is fixed for a particular VDS. It is similar to the transconductance (I/Rtr) for a dipole
MOSFETs can come with a fourth lead, called the body terminal. This terminal forms a diode junction with the drain-source channel. It should be held at non-conducting voltage [say, to the source or to a point in a circuit that is more negative than the source (n-channel devices) or more positive than the source (p-channel devices)]. If the base is moved away from the source (for enhancement-type MOSFETs) and set to a different voltage than the source, the resulting threshold voltage changes VGS by 1⁄2VBS 1/2. Direction tends to decrease drain current for a given VGS. Shifting the threshold voltage becomes important in some instances when leakage effects, capacitance effects, and signal polarity must be balanced. The body terminal of a MOSFET is often used to determine the operating point of the MOSFET by applying an incremental ac signal to its gate.
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#Metal #Oxide #Semiconductor #FieldEffect #Transistors