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Dutch Masters of the Golden Age Painting
New Dutch Republic
The Netherlands came under Spanish control in 1556 when its crown passed to the foreign king Philip II of Spain.
William the Silent (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584) was the father of the Dutch Republic.
He was the main leader of the Dutch Revolt that declared independence from the Spanish Empire in 1581, during the Eighty Years’ War (1568–1648), the Netherlands emerged as a kingdom.
The new Dutch Republic was proclaimed in 1588.
The Dutch Republic rose to world power in the 17th century and became a leading power in European trade, science and art.
The Dutch East India Company (United East India Company), was a megacorporation that flourished in the 17th century as part of the powerful Dutch, commercial empire in the East Indies (present-day Indonesia).
It was dissolved in 1799.
Capitalism was an economic and political system that expanded trade, attracted immigrants, and fueled the growth of major cities and ports.
A History of Dutch Painting
The Dutch Golden Age, from about 1620 to 1680, developed a very distinct style of depicting the natural world that favored landscapes such as western coastal dunes and rivers with surrounding pastures where cattle graze, often with city views. distance
He depicted everyday life with Dutch proverbs and sayings that carried moral messages.
Between 1605 and 1635 painters such as Frans Hals and Jacob van Ruysdael, Lieven de Kee and Jan Steen produced more than 100,000 paintings in Haarlem, the capital of the province of North Holland, depicting the city’s glorious history and products.
In the 17th century many portrait paintings were made by wealthy individuals.
The Dutch words “stilleven” and “landscape” were adopted into English as “still life” and “landscape” on which art in Europe depended for the next two centuries.
The Golden Age did not really recover from the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), which led to the collapse of the Republic in 1795 and the absorption of its colonial empire by England.
Important Masters of the Golden Age
Rembrandt Hermensoon van Rijn (1606 – 1669)
Rembrandt is considered one of the greatest artists in the history of Baroque-style painting.
He was a prolific master of three mediums, draftsman, painter and printmaker who also taught many important Dutch painters.
His subject matter ranged from portraits and self-portraits to landscapes, genre scenes, allegorical and historical scenes, and biblical and mythological themes, as well as animal studies.
Famous paintings by Rembrandt
*The Night Watch (1642)
The Night Watch is famous for three things: its enormous size (363 cm × 437 cm (11.91 ft × 14.34 ft)), its dramatic use of light and shadow (tenebrism), and the perception of motion that is traditionally fixed. Portrait of a military group.
*The Jewish Bride (1665)
Depicted as a Jewish bride, Isaac and Rebecca, the sitters emphasized their loyalty and piety, and their marriage was happy and virtuous.
*Storm on the Sea of Galilee (1633)
Oil-on-canvas painting depicting the biblical story of Jesus calming the storm on the Sea of Galilee.
This is Rembrandt’s only seascape.
*Head of Christ (1648)
The Head of Christ is a 1648 painting that is now in the Gemäldegalerie in Berlin.
*Bathsheba in her Bath (1654)
A painting hanging in The Louvre shows King David bathing Bathsheba from the Old Testament.
Johannes Vermeer (1632 – 1675)
A Dutch Golden-Age artist, Johannes Vermeer was a Baroque period painter who depicted domestic interior scenes of middle-class life and masterful use of light in his work.
Hans Koningsberger wrote, “Nearly all of his paintings are set in two small rooms in his house in Delft; they show the same furniture and decorations in various arrangements, and they often depict the same people, mostly women.”
About 36 of his paintings exist and are among the most revered treasures now found in the world’s best museums.
Famous pictures include:
*View of Delft (1661)
*The Girl with a Pearl Earring (1665)
*The Milk Maid (1658)
*The Little Street (1658)
France Hales (1582 – 1666)
Franz Hals the Elder was a Baroque painter best known for his portraits of wealthy citizens and large group portraits depicting local civil guards.
His paintings depict meetings of banqueters, officials, guildsmen, local council traveling players and singers, gentlemen, fisheries and innkeepers.
In his wedding portrait, the husband is traditionally on the left and the wife on the right.
The Laughing Cavalier (1624) is one of Hales’ most famous works, and the Banquet of the Officers (1616) of the St. Adrian Militia Company of 1627 captures each character in various poses and facial expressions.
His many paintings include:
*Feast of Officers (1616)
*The Laughing Horseman (1624)
*The Laughing Boy (1525)
*Officers and Sergeants (1639)
Jan Stein (1626 – 1679)
Jan Hawixzoon Steen (1626 – 3 February 1679) was a 17th-century Dutch painter whose works included portraits, historical and biblical themes, genre paintings, and illustrations referencing old Dutch proverbs or literature.
Stein often used members of his family as models.
Famous pictures include:
*Harpsichord Lesson (1660)
*The Dancing Couple (1663)
*The Feast of St. Nicholas (1665)
*The Happy Family (1668)
Rachel Ruish (1664 – 1750)
Rachel Ruysch was a Dutch still-life painter from the northern Netherlands who specialized in flowers.
Her painting career spans over six decades and is the best documented female painter of the Dutch Golden Age.
She started painting at the age of fifteen and lived to the age of eighty and died at the age of eighty-six.
Famous paintings by Rachel Ruysh include:
*Roses, convolutions, poppies and other flowers in an urn on a stone pedestal (1688)
*Flowers in a Vase (1699)
*Flowers in a Glass Vase (1704)
*Flowers Still Life (1726)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525 – 1569)
Pieter Bruegel was a Flemish (region of Flanders) artist and printmaker of Dutch Renaissance paintings known for his landscapes and peasant scenes.
To develop his subject he often disguised himself as a farmer and attended local festivals such as county fairs and weddings.
He is referred to as “Peasant Bruegel” to distinguish him from later painters in his family which included his son Pieter Bruegel the Younger (1564-1638).
His paintings typically depict peasants with landscape backgrounds, religious works such as the Conversion of Paul and the Sermons of St. John the Baptist, and religious parables that were characteristic of the Northern Renaissance.
Famous pictures include:
*The Harvesters (1565)
*The Hay Harvest (1565)
*The Peasant Wedding (1567)
*St John’s Sermon (1564)
Hendrik Terbrughan (1588-1629)
Hendrick Jansz ter Brugghen (or Terbrugghen) was a Dutch painter who was one of the followers of Caravaggio (an Italian painter of the late 1500s and early 1600s) – the so-called Utrecht Caravaggisti.
Scenes in his style included half-length figures of drinkers or musicians, religious images, and group portraits.
Famous pictures include:
*Bagpipe Player (1624)
*The Singing Lute Player (1624)
*Crucifixion with the Virgin and Saint John (1625)
*The Denial of St. Peter (1628)
Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)
Rubens is considered the most influential artist of the Flemish Baroque tradition in Europe in the 17th century and was also a favorite painter of his great Spanish patron Philip IV.
During his lifetime he created masterpieces of antiquity from classical and Christian history, mythology, altarpieces, portraits and landscapes.
He was also a prolific designer of cartoons for Flemish tapestry workshops.
His patrons included royalty and the Church.
*The Elevation of the Cross (1610)
*Samson and Delilah (1610)
*The Descent from the Cross (1614)
*Self Portrait (1639)
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