Alternating Current Flow May Be Opposed By Resistance And What You Should Know about SMAW

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What You Should Know about SMAW

In shielded metal-arc welding, intense heat from electric

An arc is used to melt metals and form joints. is one of them

The oldest and most widely used welding process. Although used

Primarily iron and mild steels, for connecting shielded metal-arcs

Because welding is suitable for maintenance tasks

The equipment is relatively cheap, easy to operate and can

Used for welding various types of metals.

Below, you will find explanations describing the shield

Metal-arc welding process and how welding machines and

Accessories are set and used. You will also get information

When choosing an electrode. Personal safety equipment and

Precautions are also described.

How the process works

A typical SMAW outfit consists of an electric welding machine,

Two welding cables, ground clamp, electrode holder and a

Covered metal electrodes. Current from welding

A machine is used to create an electric arc between the ends of

Electrodes and work.

Welding starts by touching the tip of the electrode

The base metal, then the electrode lifts about ¼ inch. This form

arc, which produces temperatures up to 5550°C. intense

The heat at the arc area instantly melts the base metal and starts

Burn off the electrode coating and melt the core.

The molten core becomes the filler metal for the weld and

The breakdown of the flux creates a protective gas atmosphere

around the arc area. The gas forms a shield from contamination

from oxygen and nitrogen in the surrounding air. extra

Shielding is provided by electrode flux, which becomes a

The deposits are called slag.

The shielding gas is ionized and conducts electricity and

Maintains arch stability.

Welding voltage and current

Either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) is used.

Arc voltage or working voltage is the voltage present in

Welding Circuit When the arc is struck and welding is done.

Arc voltage ranges from 15V to 40V depending on the arc

length

Open circuit voltage is the voltage generated by welding

machine when welding is not being done. are open-circuit voltages

Normally set between 50V and 100V, but comes down to arc voltage

level when the arc is struck and welding begins.

arc length

In any electrical circuit, there is an interrelationship between them

Voltage, Current and Resistance. have the best results

Generally obtained with an arch length of about one in diameter

electrode

When the arc length is increased, less current flows

Due to increased resistance. The result is a cool arc

And the tendency to spit is more. will be less

Penetration of the weld, increased exposure to oxidation and

contamination, and an irregular, unstable arc.

As the arc length is reduced, the less resistance the more current

flows with lower voltage and the arc becomes hotter. with thin

Materials, heat can melt a hole in welding, porosity, and

Undercutting of adjacent base metal.

polarity

For DC machines, this is important. When the electrode is

Negative and the work piece is positive, it is called straight

polarity. The opposite is reverse polarity.

DCSP or direct current is denoted by direct polarity

Electrode melting faster, weld puddles wider and

Penetration into the base metal is relatively shallow. This is

Used when there are fast welding speeds and high deposition rates

necessary

DCRP or direct current reversed polarity results in a hotter arc,

Making deep, narrow weld puddles. It is used for structural

Welding, multi pass welds and applications requiring deep

entry

Most electrodes are designed for use with only one polarity.

power source

Most AC power sources have a transformer that steps down the line

voltage to the level required for welding (usually lower than

100V)

Welding machine

Many types and sizes of welding machines are used for shielding

Metal-arc welding. A constant-current type of current conducts

Variations in arc length do not change significantly. This is

Preference for manual welding operations.

Adjusts the static-potential type of welding machine

Flow by arc length. If used in manual

operation, will create an inevitable difference in arc length

Large fluctuations in current, resulting in instability,

Non-uniform arc. For automatic operations, static electrodes

Feed rate establishes constant arc and uniform arc length.

A machine’s current rating is its maximum current output.

A current rating of 400 amp means the machine can deliver up to

400 amps of welding current.

The duty cycle rating of the machine is the safe operating

Ability to non-stop welding. It has been expressed

The percentage of a 10-minute period at which the machine can

Deliver its rated maximum welding current output without damage

or overheating. 80 percent of the 400-amp machines are one, which can

Deliver 400 amps of welding current for a total of 8 minutes

out of every 10, and must be inactive for at least 2 minutes out of every 10

to cool.

Tools and Accessories

Tools for SMAW are: cables, holders, clamps, chipping hammers,

Wire brush. Protective equipment means face shield, goggles,

Apron, gloves, shoes, long-sleeved shirt. Protective

Equipment is to prevent eye injuries, and burns. as well

It is necessary to avoid electric shock, especially in wet areas.

Choosing an Electrode

Electrodes are classified according to their base material: mild steel,

High-carbon steel, special alloy steel, cast iron, and

Non iron. Mild steel electrodes are most commonly used.

In general, the electrode core material is as closely matched

As much as possible with the composition of the base metal. electrode

The size varies depending on the thickness of the base metal.

Shapes and characteristics of selected electrodes

Determine the arc current settings on the welding machine.

Generally, the recommended amperage range for electrodes

provided by the manufacturer.

Set up and operation

Observe fire precautions before starting welding. No

Be near flammable work area.

Electrical power is still off; Hold the earth wire

Work piece and electrode on the holder. turn on

To strike the power arc, place the end of the electrode

About 1 inch above the weld start point. Lower your face

Touch, with a quick tapping and scratching motion of the shield

Electrode on metal base. Immediately thereafter

Contact, slightly extend the end of the electrode to install

An arc whose length is approximately equal to the electrode

Diameter

If you don’t advance the electrode fast enough, it will stick

Twist or bend the electrode to free it for work. So

The electrode does not release, it releases quickly

Holder With a little practice, you can learn to arc

Without sticking electrodes.

When the current settings and an appropriate bracket length

is maintained, a constant cracking sound is heard while welding.

A humming sound indicates that the arc length is too long or

The current is too high. Too short arcs make a popping sound

And the flash may turn on and off, indicating that the electrode is sticking

and short circuiting to the base metal.

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