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Rose: Symbol of Fantasy
Flowers have the ability to make any person smile with their attractive colors, fragrances and beauty. Rose is a good example of that. Rose is a perennial plant in the genus Roza and family Rosaceae. About 100 species of roses are known. Rose species can be erect shrubs, climbers or trees with prickly armed stems. The flowers are large, attractive with a huge range of colors like red, yellow, orange pink, white etc. Most species are native to Asia, but others are native to Europe, Northwest Africa, and North America. Both cultivars and hybrids are grown worldwide for their beauty and fragrance. Plant length can vary from compact, miniature plants to climbers reaching 7 meters. These plants can easily be hybridized, making a wide variety of garden roses readily available. The name rose is derived from the French word while the scientific name Roza comes from Latin.
The leaves are arranged alternately on the stem and are 5-15 cm long, pinnate and have 5-9 leaflets and basal stipules. The leaflets are provided with toothed margins and are spiny on the underside of the stem. The trees are deciduous but some are also evergreen. A flower usually has five petals Rosa sericea There is an exception with four petals. Each petal has two lobes and is brightly colored with different shades of color. Just below the petals are five sepals which are sometimes so large that they are visible from above and are arranged alternately. The ovary is inferior meaning it develops below the petals and sepals. They are a good example of insect pollinated plants. The fruit has a berry-like structure called rose-hip. Many domestic cultivars do not produce rose hips because the petals are so closely spaced that they do not give insects the opportunity to pollinate the flowers. Buttocks can be red, purple or black in color. The pods have an outer fleshy layer called a hypanthium containing 5-60 seeds covered with stiff hairs. Dog rose hips, rugosa rose are rich sources of vitamin C. Hips are eaten by small birds such as waxwings, finches and thrushes that spread the seeds through their droppings.
The prickles on the stem of a rose are usually sickle-shaped hooks used to hang on plants as they grow. Despite their thorns, they often kill deer. They make the world’s best indoor ornamental plants. The flowers are used in perfumery as well as in cut crop production. Some are also used as landscape plants and have minor medicinal uses. Rose perfume is made from rose oil which is a blend of essential compounds. Rose oil contains the alcohols geraniol and l-citronellol; and rose camphor, odorless paraffin. ?-Damascenone is an important aroma component. The rose water that remains after extracting the rose oil is used in recipes in the Middle East and Asian countries. Rose hips are also used to make jams, jellies, marmalades as they are a rich source of vitamin C. Roses are used in Chinese medicine to cure stomach problems as well as to check the growth of cancer.
Roses are also a source of inspiration for artists. Roses are at high risk of infection by fungal diseases such as rose black spot, rose rust, rose powdery mildew, downy mildew and canker disease. Fungicides are used to cure these diseases. The major pests affecting these ornamental plants are aphids, thrips, Japanese beetles and caterpillars of lepidopteran insects. Chemical formulations are used to kill these harmful insects as they affect plant growth as well as economic yield.
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