All Rivers Flow To Oceans Or Lakes Because Water Amazon Rainforest

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Amazon Rainforest

It is the world’s largest tropical rain forest, sheltering an area of ​​5,500,000 km² (2,123,562 sq mi), spanning the lands of Brazil, Venezuela, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana and Suriname, with many species and few species. They are not up to date. In 2009 it was also listed for voting in the New Seven Wonders of Nature. Not only as a rainforest but also because of the diversity of flora and fauna as well as climate and its vastness makes it one of the most beautiful places. on earth Let’s not forget that even though it is a living laboratory, a rich reservoir of carbon and a store house of oxygen, its preservation is our highest priority.

The name Amazon is believed to have originated from the wars fought by Francisco de Orellana with the Tapuyas and other tribes in South America. The women of the tribe fought alongside the men, as was the custom throughout the tribe. Orellana took the name Amazonas from the ancient Amazons of Asia and Africa described by Herodotus and Diodorus in Greek mythology.

Rainforests may have been formed during the Eocene period. It may have formed after a global decrease in tropical temperatures when the Atlantic Ocean expanded enough to provide a warm and humid climate to the Amazon basin. It must have existed free of savanna-type biomes for about 55 million years since its formation. When the climate became drier, the savanna spread widely.

The extinction of the dinosaurs and a wetter climate may have spread tropical rainforests across the continent. From 65–34 Mya, the rainforest extended southward to 45°. Climatic fluctuations over the past 34 million years have allowed savanna regions to expand into the tropics. During the Oligocene, for example, rainforests spanned a relatively narrow strip that was mostly at about 15°N latitude. It expanded again during the middle Miocene, then retreated to the inland formations of the last glacial maximum. However, rainforests were still able to thrive during these glacial periods, allowing for the survival and evolution of a wide diversity of species.

During the mid-Eocene, it is believed that the drainage basin of the Amazon was divided in the center of the continent by the Purus Arc. Water from the east flowed towards the Atlantic, while water from the west flowed across the Amazon basin to the Pacific. As the Andes mountains rose, however, a large basin formed that surrounded the lake; Now known as the Solimões Basin. Over the past 5–10 million years, these accumulated waters broke through the Purus Arc and joined the Atlantic’s eastward flow.

There is evidence of significant changes in the vegetation of the Amazon rainforest during the last 21,000 years due to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and subsequent decline. Analysis of sedimentary deposits in the Amazon Basin Paleolex and the Amazon Fan indicates that rainfall in the basin during the LGM was lower than at present, and this was almost certainly related to a moister tropical vegetation cover in the basin. However, there is doubt as to how widespread this reduction was. Some scientists argue that the rainforest became fragmented into small, isolated raffia separated by open forest and grassland, and other scientists argue that the rainforest remained largely intact but expanded less north, south, and east than it does today. This has been difficult to resolve because the practical limitations of working in the rainforest mean that data sampling is far from the center of the Amazon basin, and both explanations are reasonably supported by the available data.

Based on archaeological evidence from excavations at Caverna da Pedra Pintada, human inhabitants settled in the Amazon region at least 11,200 years ago. Subsequent development led to late-prehistoric settlements on the forest periphery by 1250 AD, changing the forest cover. Biologists believe that a population density of 0.2 inhabitants per square kilometer (0.52/sq mi) is the maximum a rainforest can sustain through hunting. Therefore, agriculture is needed to host a large population.

About 5 to 7 million people lived in the Amazon region, divided between dense coastal settlements, such as those at Marajó, and inland dwellers. For a long time, it was believed that they were sparsely populated hunter-gatherer tribes living inland. Archaeologist Betty J. Meggers was a major proponent of this idea, as described in her book Amazonia: Man and Culture in a Counterfeit Paradise. However, recent archaeological finds suggest that the region was actually densely populated.

One of the main pieces of evidence is the existence of fertile terra preta (black earth), which is distributed over large areas in the Amazon rainforest. It is now widely accepted that these soils are a product of indigenous soil management. The development of these soils allowed agriculture and silviculture in previously hostile environments; This means that large parts of the Amazon rainforest are likely the result of centuries of human management, rather than occurring naturally as previously believed. In 2003, Michael Hackenberger and colleagues from the University of Florida discovered the remains of these large settlements in the heart of the Amazon rainforest, in the territory of the Zinguanos tribe. It had evidence of roads, bridges and large plazas.

As we all know, the Amazon jungle is incredibly rich in flora and fauna. Discussing its wildlife, one can find many local and endemic species of frogs such as: giant leaf frogs, birds like the scarlet macaw and about 2.5 million species of insects. It is home to 40,000 plant species, 3000 fish, 1,294 birds, 427 mammals, 428 amphibians and 378 reptiles. Scientists have described between 96,660 and 128,843 invertebrate species in Brazil alone.

One square kilometer (247 acres) of Amazon rainforest can contain about 90,790 metric tons of living plants. The average plant biomass is approximately 356 ± 47 tonnes ha−1. To date, approximately 438,000 species of plants of economic and social interest have been recorded in the region, which are yet to be discovered or catalogued. The green leaf area of ​​plants and trees in the rainforest varies by about 25% due to seasonal changes. Leaves expand during the dry season when sunlight is maximum, then fall off during the cloudy wet season. These changes provide a balance of carbon between photosynthesis and respiration. Among the largest predators are black caiman, jaguar, cougar and anaconda. In rivers, electric eels can deliver electric shocks that can stun or kill, while piranhas bite and injure humans. Various species of poison dart frogs secrete lipophilic alkaloid toxins from their bodies. There are also numerous parasites and disease vectors. Vampire bats live in rainforests and can spread the rabies virus. Malaria, yellow fever and dengue fever can also occur in the Amazon region.

Farmers near the Amazon forest used to manipulate forest areas to grow crops. Because forest soils are incredibly low in nutrients (this is because the Amazon forest is a highly active ecosystem and has high total primary productivity), farmers continue to clear forests for agriculture. Between 1991 and 2000, the total area of ​​forest lost in the Amazon increased from 415,000 to 587,000 square kilometers (160,000 to 227,000 sq mi), and most of the lost forest became pasture for cattle. 70% of formerly forested land in the Amazon and 91% of land deforested since 1970 is used for livestock. In addition, Brazil is currently the second largest soybean producer after the United States. The needs of soy farmers have been used to validate several controversial transportation projects currently being developed in the Amazon. The first two highways successfully opened up the rainforest and increased settlement and deforestation. The average annual deforestation rate from 2000 to 2005 (22,392 km2 [8,646 sq mi] per annum) was 18% more than the previous five years (19,018 km2). [7,343 sq mi] per year). Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has decreased significantly since 2004.

As a result of deforestation, environmentalists fear the loss of biodiversity as well as the release of carbon that could ultimately increase global warming. Amazonian evergreen forests account for 10% of the world’s terrestrial primary productivity and 10% of carbon stores in ecosystems of 1.1 × 1011 metric tons of carbon. Between 1975 and 1996, Amazonian forests are estimated to have accumulated 0.62 ± 0.37 tons of carbon per hectare per year. Some fear that the forest cannot survive due to greenhouse gas emissions and will be completely destroyed at this rate by 2100.

From 2002 to 2006, the land protected in the Amazon rainforest nearly tripled and the deforestation rate dropped to 60%. About 1,000,000 square kilometers (250,000,000 acres) have been conserved in some form, adding to the current total of 1,730,000 square kilometers (430,000,000 acres).

The basin is drained by the Amazon River, the world’s largest river in terms of discharge and the world’s second largest river after the Nile. The river is made up of more than 1,100 tributaries, 17 of which are over 1,000 miles long, and two of which (the Negro and the Madeira) are larger in volume than the Congo (formerly Zaire) River. The river system is the lifeline of the forest and its history plays an important role in the development of its rainforests. It straddles the borders of eight countries and one overseas territory, is the world’s largest river basin and the source of one-fifth of all free-flowing fresh water on Earth. Its rainforests are the largest and most luxuriant on the planet and – amazingly – contain one of the ten known species on Earth.

More than 350 indigenous and ethnic groups have lived in the Amazon for thousands of years, using nature for agriculture, clothing and traditional medicine. Today more than 30 million people live in this region. Although most people live in large urban centers, all residents depend on the Amazon’s ecosystem services for food, shelter, and livelihoods. The Amazon rainforest is important to the indigenous population because it is their home and their culture is closely related to the forest, rivers and fauna. If you destroy the forest, you will also destroy all the remaining tribals. Some tribes in the Amazon still have no contact with outside cultures. Can we destroy the indigenous way of life? People have been living happily for thousands of years. Humanity will lose their language, arts, stories and their knowledge.

Deforestation has created many dangerous situations not only on the forest but on every inch of the earth. We consider Mother Earth as a whole unit that is constantly working and creating, and that every living species has an ecological place within its ecosystem. As the world’s largest rainforest that absorbs most of the CO2 released into the atmosphere and a major watershed as well as water recycler, the Amazon is our responsibility. Protecting it, preserving it and using it sustainably will help every living thing on earth, including mankind, flourish. Its uniqueness that amazes the whole world will otherwise be lost for good. Scientists and botanists and various types of professionals who enter this great green cover discover something new every day and just imagine that most of the pills and medicines we use are from Amazon. It is a reserve of herbs and truly a gift from God. Visit it, admire its beauty and get a hand in raising awareness to preserve it for the future world.

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