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Mechanical Vacuum Booster:-
Mechanical vacuum boosters are dry pumps that meet most ideal vacuum pump requirements. They work on the positive displacement principle and are used to boost the performance of water ring / oil ring / rotating vane / piston pumps and steam or water ejectors. They are used in combination with any one of the pumps mentioned above to overcome their limitations. Vacuum booster pumps offer very desirable features that make them the most economical and energy efficient option.
Major advantages are:-
(a) Steam ejectors, water ring pumps, oil sealed pumps, water ejectors etc. Can be integrated with any installed vacuum system.
(b) A vacuum booster is a dry pump as it does not use any pumping fluid. It pumps vapor or gas with equal ease. Small amounts of condensed liquid can also be pumped.
(c) Vacuum boosters are energy efficient. Often the combination of a vacuum booster and a suitable backup pump will reduce power consumption per unit of pumping speed. They provide high pumping speed even at low pressure.
(d) Boosters increase the working vacuum of the process, which is essential for the process in most cases
efficiency and effectiveness. Vacuum boosters can be used over a wide working pressure range,
100 Torr down to 0.001 Torr (mm of mercury), with proper arrangement of backup pumps.
Everest …………………. Leaders in Vacuum Booster Technology Boosters for Vacuum Processes © Everest Transmission January, 2005.
(e) It has very low pump friction losses, so relatively less power is required for high volumetric
Speed Typically, in low vacuum their speed is 20-30 times higher than the corresponding vane.
Equivalent power pumps / ring pumps.
(f) The use of electronic control devices such as variable frequency control allows for drive improvements
Operating characteristics to meet the operational needs of the vacuum booster prime
Vacuum pump. So they can be easily integrated into all existing pumping setups to boost them
(g) Vacuum boosters have no valves, rings, stuffing boxes etc., so do not demand regular maintenance.
(h) Due to the vapor compression action of the booster, the pressure at the discharge of the booster (or the inlet of the backup pump) is maintained high, resulting in advantages such as less back flow of prime pump fluid, effective condensation even at high condenser temperatures. and improvement in backup pump efficiency.
The table below gives a rough estimate of how boosters increase the working vacuum in a process when installed in conjunction with the various types of industrial vacuum pumps currently used in the industry. They can effectively replace multistage steam ejectors, resulting in significant steam savings and reduced load on cooling towers. Mechanical vacuum boosters are versatile machines and their characteristics largely depend on the backing pump. Depending on the system requirements and ultimate vacuum requirements, different types of backing pumps can be used.
However, the ultimate vacuum is controlled by proper selection of backing pump and booster
Arrangements The table below gives a wide range of vacuums achieved in combination with various backing pumps.
Expected vacuum on installation of vacuum pump booster (single stage)
Single Stage Ejector 150 Torr 15 – 30 Torr
Water Ejector 100 Torr 10 – 20 Torr
Water Ring Pump 40 – 60 Torr 5 – 10 Torr
Liquid Ring Pump 20 – 30 Torr 2 – 5 Torr
Piston pump 20 – 30 Torr 2 – 5 Torr
Rotary piston pump 0.1 Torr 0.01 Torr
Rotary Vane Oil Pump 0.01 – 0.001 Torr 0.001 – 0.0001 Torr.
Everest……………. Leaders in Vacuum Booster Technology Boosters for Vacuum Processes © Everest Transmission January, 2005.
For example, if a process uses water ring pumps, approximate operating vacuums will be on the order of about 670-710 mmHg gauge (90-50 mmHg abs.), depending largely on water temperature and pump design. When a booster is installed before the water ring pump, in series, vacuum levels of the order of 5-10 Torr can easily be achieved. In a multi-stage booster installation, vacuum levels of the order of 0.5 Torr and better can easily be expected. Mechanical boosters provide a completely dry pumping solution and unlike steam ejectors do not add any vapor to the load and therefore, do not require large inter-stage condensates. At low vacuum, a high pumping speed is required to maintain the through-put, as the specific volume increases with increasing vacuum. Vacuum boosters increase the pumping speed by about 3-10 times, depending on the choice one can expect higher processing rates and through-put. Disadvantages of steam ejector systems such as sensitivity to motive fluid pressure and discharge pressure are easily overcome by mechanical boosters, as the volumetric displacement/pumping speed is insensitive to inlet and outlet working pressures.
Typical booster installation
(1) Evaporator (2) Gauge (3) Condenser (4) Mechanical booster
(5) Backup pump
Everest …………….. The Leader in Vacuum Booster Technology Boosters for Vacuum Processing © Everest Transmission January, 2005.
Calculation of pump capacity:-
Based on the basic gas law PV= RT, an expression can be derived for the volumetric flow rates required to pump various vapours/gases. The required pump capacity can be estimated based on the mass flow rate.
V = R . Tgas / P Q1/M1 + Q2/M2 …………. Qn/Mn
where V = inlet volume flow rate m3/hr.
R = Universal Gas Constant, 83.14 mbar m3/ Kgmol x ºK
Tgas = gas/vapor abs. Temperature, in ºK
Process total pressure in P = mbar
Q1, Q2, Q3 = gas/vapor flow rate, in kg/hr.
M1 , M2 ,M3 = molar mass, in Kg/mol. Gas/vapour.
Power constraints constrain the total differential pressure across the booster. It calls for ensuring that the total differential pressure across the booster does not exceed the rated limit. This can be ensured through any of the following means:-
1.) Manual Method:- Initially the front pump is switched on until the required pressure is reduced and then the booster is switched on.
2.) Auto Method:- Installing mechanical by-pass arrangement on booster or hydro kinematic drive or variable frequency drive (VFD). In this arrangement, the booster and four pumps can be simultaneously started from atmosphere.
Advantages of using an electronic variable speed control device
Electronic AC variable frequency control drives are the most preferred devices used for regulation.
Booster speed to match different process load conditions. These drives increase the overall efficiency of the booster and provide various benefits for trouble-free operation.
Major advantages are:-
1. The booster can be launched directly from the atmosphere.
Everest ………………. The leader in vacuum booster technology
Booster for vacuum processing © Everest Transmission January, 2005.
2. No need for separate pressure switch through pass line or offloading valve.
3. Significant savings in power.
4. Prevents overheating of the booster.
5. Protects the booster from overload and over pressure.
6. Provides complete protection to the motor from over voltage, under voltage, over current.
Over-heating, ground fault.
7. Eliminates the need for a separate starter and overload relay for the motor.
8. Automatically adjusts booster speed between low and high range sets giving high
pumping speed with relatively low input power.
The electronic variable frequency control drive is a microprocessor based electronic drive specially programmed to meet the demands of the booster so that it can operate directly from the environment with a suitable fore pump. Conventionally, boosters can only be started after achieving a four vacuum in the range of 30 – 100 Torr, as it is not recommended to discharge them directly into the atmosphere. A pressure switch, hydro kinematic drive and by-pass valve must be used to prevent overloading of the booster. However, all conventional methods can be bypassed with the installation of an electronic variable frequency control drive as the drive is programmed to automatically control the booster speed, keeping the load on the motor within permissible limits. This allows the booster to start simultaneously with the backup pump. When the back-up-pump and booster are started, the drive reduces the speed of the booster to pre-set levels and increases the speed of the booster as the vacuum builds up, reaching the final pre-set speed, giving the most optimum performance throughout the range. Since all parameters are easily programmable, the booster can adjust the pumping speed to match system requirements easily and quickly. The drive limits current to the motor and protects the motor from overvoltage, undervoltage, electronic thermal, overheat ground faults. That means it protects the motor from all possible faults.
External computer control of all aspects of booster performance is possible built into the drive electronics via the RS485 serial interface. This enables the booster to be integrated into any computer-controlled operating system.
To know more about this site visit this site: http://www.everestblowers.com
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