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Vibration Training – Fact Or Fiction?
Vibration Training and Targeted Vibration Training recently made headlines when Madonna and Kylie Minogue announced they were devotees of this system that involves exercising while standing on a vibration platform (Powerplate, Fit-Vib or Galileo). Manufacturers of vibration equipment state that results can be achieved in much less time compared to using vibration-free equipment, such that 10 minutes on the platform is equivalent to 1 hour of jogging. There must be some basis for this message.
However, data are largely inconsistent due to the variety of vibration application methods, such as vibrating platforms, vibrating dumbbells, and targeted vibration devices. Additionally the protocols followed during vibration training such as resting vibration, static exercise with vibration and dynamic exercise with vibration also make it difficult to draw conclusions. Researchers from London South Bank University published a paper in a peer-reviewed journal showing that during a set of leg extension exercises with vibration (Vibrex, Exoscience Ltd.) 35% of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) , 70% Subjects responded similarly to those observed following subjects performing a single set of leg extensions without vibration at 1-RM (Mileva et al., 2006). Training studies have not yet been completed but this result suggests that reducing the intensity of exercise (lifting weights) and adding vibration stimulation may have the same benefits as high intensity resistance training. It is still very early days for vibration research and application but the key principle seems to be to reduce the amount of stimulation and increase the quality of stimulation. For these reasons we always recommend that anyone interested in using vibration for training, particularly at an elite level, consults a qualified practitioner as part of a training program such as the Human Performance Center at London South Bank University.
This is how it works
So what is it about vibration training that can potentially lead to the benefits described above? Well, the easiest way to think about vibration training is to remember that time you went to the doctor and the doctor tapped the knee tendons to raise your lower leg. This response is called the stretch reflex. Stretching of a muscle or tendon is sensed by the receptors and sends a very rapid signal to the spinal cord which causes a very strong muscle contraction to respond and if this tendon tube is stretched to maximum voluntary contraction, additional force can be produced. Now imagine tapping this knee 20-30 times per second while doing the exercise. This can lead to a greater degree of muscle activation than voluntary contractions alone. Certainly we observed a shift in muscle recruitment patterns towards greater activation of fast-twitch muscle fibers than normal non-vibration contractions, suggesting that combining training with vibration may provide greater training stimulus and thus greater performance. In fact researchers have estimated the amount of work done by the g-forces involved and estimate that a greater amount of work is required to match the level of g-force involved (Bosco et al., 2000). Current methods of vibration distribution have their limitations. The most common method of vibration training is a vibrating platform on which the user exercises. These devices have often been used in research but the results produced, although promising, are not consistent. About 30% of people can’t use these devices because they can cause nausea and if used incorrectly can send the vibrations from the spine directly to the base of the skull (as I found out one day when I got dizzy. and a headache!).
Targeted vibration training
For these reasons we prefer the idea of targeted vibration directly to the exercising muscles which ensures a more specific training stimulus and eliminates any unpleasant side effects. Also targeted vibration training has been shown to lead to 3x greater strength development than conventional strength training (Issurin et al., 1994). The targeted vibration system we developed in our lab (Vibrex) was tested on small groups of people and 1 woman could lift 70Kg 1 time before training and after training with Vibrex 3 times per week for 5 weeks she lifted 125Kg 17 times which is remarkable. Correction This study was presented at a meeting of the Physiological Society. We believe that bone formation is increased to match this strength improvement.
Breath vibration training
We recently released a targeted vibration device for the respiratory system called youbreathe (www.youbreathe.com) that pulsates the airflow in and out of the lungs to stimulate the stretch reflex of the respiratory muscles. The results look very exciting with a 15% improvement in performance after only 10 breaths (Sumners et al., 2007). youbreathe is currently used by elite cyclists, triathletes, footballers and rugby players who all report noticeable benefits to their sporting performance. Further trials are underway, with plans to continue clinical trials aimed at reducing the symptoms of cardio-respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis, coronary heart disease, asthma and COPD.
In conclusion, vibration training certainly seems to offer the potential to increase the exercise’s return on investment, yielding more return for a given effort, but it is too early to draw conclusions about how to train vibration and which vibration method to use. We strongly recommend seeking advice from appropriate practitioners and incorporating vibration training into the overall training program. Vibration training certainly has the greatest potential in rehabilitation on clinical populations such as the elderly and those with osteoporosis.
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