Advantage Of Building Data Flow Diagrams Based On Events Components of a Public Administration Program

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Components of a Public Administration Program

Evaluating program implementation requires a complete and adequate description of its components.

The components are:

– Strategy,

– activities,

– behaviour,

– Ways of communication and

– Details and implementation of technology and beneficiaries for program implementation.

Proper and accurate identification of program components will assess which aspects of the program were implemented as planned and which factors are likely to influence implementation differences.

Appropriate details of factors were noted to assess concerns as to the scope of the program (target beneficiaries). Furthermore, inferences about possible links between implementation outcomes and program outcomes (outputs, intermediate outcomes, impacts, etc.) …

At the same time specification (or specification) of program content is a requirement of the evaluation process.

Your own initiative to plan and carry out the evaluation process contributes to the most appropriate and realistic content of the program. This is an important condition to ensure that the program is more effective (because the internal consistency of the program has gone through preliminary checks) and secondly, the evaluation of results and outcomes is more effective because the performance of the program will be compared. Goals and more consistent and realistic expectations.

To allow an assessment of how the process can improve the design and specification of a public program, certain techniques can be used.

1 – Formative assessment: conducting specific interventions based on data collected from pilot projects and beneficiaries and providing information on the feasibility of certain activities and tools and to what extent they are suitable for the design plan and the beneficiaries provided;

2 – Verification of the “evaluation” systematic set of procedures for the proper development of the theory behind the public program, before the full evaluation begins, the specification and explanation of the planned uses for the data in the evaluation process.

Its most important steps include (Scheirer, 1994:49-50):

a) involve key policy makers, managers and staff through a series of meetings to clarify their expectations and evaluations of the programme;

b) using a model called a matrix logic diagram, detailing the expected causal relationships between three aspects of the program: the resources allocated to the program, the implementation of specific activities planned for the program, and the expected results;

c) refinement of the theory behind the program through an interactive process to test the reality of operations in the field and the plausibility of the proposed theory, by visiting project sites and using available information;

d) Clarifying planned uses for information obtained from evaluation by discussing program changes with policy makers and program managers;

e) Use of theory to assist in program specification. Use of theories and data to explain underlying processes relevant to the key issues in the program.

This type of evaluation process is important not only to specify program content, but also to link program activities with income measures (indicators) used in subsequent impact evaluations.

The term theory here refers to the inter-related principles that explain and presuppose the behavior of an individual, group or organization.

Chen (1990) distinguishes two types of theories:

– Standard, which defines what a program should be and is

– Causation, which empirically describes the causal relationship between the proposed solution (including contextual factors) and the outcome.

The central problem in this chapter is to investigate the effectiveness of the program and to achieve this objective, it uses mechanisms to establish the causal relationship between the actions of the program and the final results.

The purpose of such evaluation can be defined as identifying the net effects of a social intervention. As with the evaluation of objectives, this approach is conducted after the end of the program or similar steps.

Evaluation Process – This type of evaluation research is aimed at measuring the coverage of social programs in a systematic way, developing social programs, establishing the extent to which they are reaching their goals, and especially monitoring their internal processes. The objective is to detect possible defects in the development of the procedures and to identify obstacles and obstacles in its implementation and to create important data for our reprogramming through the recording of events and activities.

Thus, the correct use of information produced during program development can lead to changes in its content during execution. Therefore, unlike previous approaches, this method of assessment runs concurrently with program development, also known as formative assessment. Its implementation requires, however, that we design program flows and processes.

Furthermore, it envisages the existence of an adequate management information system, which serves as a basis for the work of managers and evaluators when appropriate.

Application of Methodology of Evaluation of Social Programs:

A comprehensive evaluation system using methods that provide evaluation of outcomes and evaluation processes. Next, the settings and types of operation used in the proposed model.

Evaluation of results:

Here, results include immediate effects, effects (impacts) and long-term medium-term effects (impacts).

Evaluation suggests the use of output indicators to measure long-term outcomes, related to program objectives, and to measure immediate and medium-term outcomes. Output indicators measure program outcomes: across the population and within you

sers of the program. In the first case, with the help of field research or databases and / or existing records, two types of output indicators should be established:

– Degree of Global Scope:

Measures the rate of coverage of the target population for the program. Deficits and surpluses of beneficiaries are the causes of changes in both directions. The first shows the need for expansion, and the second, is a waste of resources (not worthy since the target population is benefiting);

– Degree of coverage varies by program:

Measures the participation of various subgroups of the target population in the proposal. This rate may indicate discrimination (or bias) in client selection of programs depending on region, age, gender, etc. On the second point, i.e. the evaluation of the results for the users of the program, indicators can be used to measure. Benefits, which take into account the specific objectives of each program or project.

Rob Voss (1993) provides some examples of commonly used indicators of program and target population users:

1 – For Nutrition Programs – Malnutrition Rates by Age, Mortality and Morbidity;

2 – for programs of education – illiteracy rate, repetition, plagiarism; Coefficients of schooling and degrees of education;

3 – For health programs – mortality in general, infant mortality, maternal mortality and births, fertility and life expectancy at birth;

4 – For housing programs – quantitative deficit for housing, quality of housing construction and availability of basic services. Indicators indicate input means or resources available to achieve objectives. Scarce and insufficient resources (financially, labor, equipment, etc.). It almost always tends to undercut the expected results.

Vos (1993) mentions some examples of the most common indicators of input such as:

a) – for nutrition programs – availability of food per person;

b) – related to educational programs – student/teacher, student/school, number of series offered by the school and availability of educational materials for students;

c) – for health programs – number of doctors per capita, for health posts per capita; Vaccines available per resident bed and per capita.

But indicators of access to identify determinants of effective use of available resources in programs to achieve objectives. The most common are:

a) – for health programs – the number of equivalent medical consultations per adult; distance to nearest health care, disposable income per household (for example, useful in facilitating the purchase of medicines) and cultural factors;

b) – for education programs – away from school, adequacy of the curriculum and available income for the family (to enable, for example, purchase of school supplies).

Furthermore, the use of questionnaires allows for customer satisfaction, a good indicator of quality but not the only or complete one. In this sense it is still possible to establish a joint indicator through the creation of indices formed by a set of attributes defined from the characteristics of the service.

Evaluation process Evaluation process can be defined as a way of identifying the actual content of a public event, whether it is being conducted as planned, the audience for which it was intended and whether its benefits are being delivered with the intensity planned (Shearer, 1994:40).

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