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Best Explanation of PW 100 Engine & Its Parts
The PW 100 series engines are at the forefront of modern, state-of-the-art regional and commuter turboprop engines. With its three spool design, easy to maintain modular construction and high power rating, the engine is a logical choice for medium to large turboprops including the Bombardier Q400, DeHavilland Dash 8 and Embraer EMB 120. Some consider the PW 100 a replacement. To the venerable PT6, but the PW 100 actually picked up where the PT6 large version left off in terms of power, fuel economy and reliability. The PW 100 series has many variations. There is no actual PW 100 engine; Engines start with the PW118 engine and end at the PW127J.
The engines are essentially the same, for the most part, with a steady increase in power output, as well as in engine output speed and mechanical shaft horsepower vs. A slight difference in the amount of thrust produced. In other words, each turboprop is rated in Equivalent Shaft Horsepower, (ESP) which is the combination of the actual mechanical horsepower delivered to the output shaft and the amount of horsepower available as a conversion of the thrust produced at the tailpipe. The ratio varies, but is typically in the range of 80% of power produced by the propeller, with 20% produced by the tailpipe.
The Powerful Model PW 100 engine is completely modular in its construction; That is, it is made up of several interchangeable modules that can be easily removed and replaced if there is a problem with the engine. The modules include the turbo-machine, power turbine assembly, inlet housing and output reduction gearbox. The compact turbo-machine consists of a twin spool gas generator and an accessory gearbox. The power turbine attaches to the rear of the turbo-machine and features a two-stage power turbine that drives a shaft that runs forward through the center of the turbo-machine shaft. The inlet housing sits at the front of the turbo-machine and provides space to draw air into the compressor and support for the output reduction gearbox. The output reduction gearbox is mounted on the front of the inlet housing and takes the high speed input from the power turbine shaft and converts it to high torque, removing it from the propeller flange at the front of the low rpm output gearbox.
Atmospheric air is drawn through the engine nacelle behind the propeller into a passive particle separator, which is part of the nacelle. Clean intake air is drawn upward into a downward facing scroll type engine inlet. In a turbo-machine, air is extracted by a single stage, centrifugal compressor. Air is accelerated externally by the compressor and fed into numerous curved diffuser ducts that smoothly deposit the air stream on the face of a single stage, centrifugal, high pressure compressor. A high pressure compressor boosts pressure to a design pressure ratio of nearly 15:1 on some later models. The high pressure compressor supplies the airflow to a diffuser that converts the dynamic pressure to static pressure as it enters the annular, reverse flow combustor. Compressed air enters the inner combustion liner where it is mixed with jet fuel and ignited. The resulting gas is expanded through a high pressure nozzle which impinges on a single stage axial high pressure turbine, which drives a high pressure compressor and accessory gearbox. The gas is then expanded through a low pressure nozzle to drive a low pressure turbine that drives a low pressure compressor. Finally, the gas is expanded through a two-stage power turbine to the front of the engine to drive a concentric shaft, which drives the output reduction gearbox. A small, axial flow, fixed area exhaust outlet is directed through the exhaust to provide 2,000 lbs. Emphasis on some popular models of the PW-100 engine. An output reduction gearbox reduces the speed of the power turbine to a usable 1,200 or 1,300 rpm to drive the four-bladed, constant-speed propeller. Accessories include generator, oil pump, fuel pump, hydraulic pump and FADEC fuel control.
A twin spool compressor offers many advantages over the same single spool compressor. By allowing the two compressors to run at different speeds, the compressor can be optimized over a wide range of airflows. This design allows for high pressure ratios, much better part power efficiency and very quick engine response. High pressure ratios and high turbine inlet temperatures allow for very low specific fuel consumption, and advanced cooling techniques and sophisticated materials allow for long periods of time between overhauls.
There are two other variants of the PW 100 that are worth mentioning. The PW150 engine is a high power development of the PW 100; It is very similar in overall design and dimensions to the PW 100, except that the low pressure compressor is a single stage axial followed by a single stage centrifugal. The pressure ratio is a high 18:1 and the engine produces power in the 5000 es-hp class, making it a suitable replacement for the Allison T56 or Rolls Royce AE1107C. There are also turbo-shaft versions of the PW 100, where the output reduction gearbox and inlet are removed and replaced with a screened bell-mouth inlet and carrier bearing. Engine output power is at turbine speed. The engine can be an alternative to the CT7 (T700) turbo-shaft in medium helicopters, although so far it has not been used in this application. However, a marine version of this turbo-shaft is available for modern military surface effect ships. These models are referred to as ST18M. Power output is approximately 3,200 shaft horsepower.
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