Acyanotic Heart Disease In Pediatrics Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow Some of the Major Cardiac Defects in Children

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Some of the Major Cardiac Defects in Children

Heart surgery is usually required in young children to correct heart defects. Sometimes children are born with these defects and sometimes they develop after birth. In both cases, surgery will be necessary. Pediatric cardiac surgery deals with operative procedures in newborns and unborn children suffering from cardiac dysfunction, structural, functional and rhythm related problems. It usually deals with heart problems such as structural defects, congenital arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies that cause a variety of heart-related abnormalities.

Here are some of the major types of heart disease in children:

Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)– An atrial septal defect is known as a hole in the heart. It is a type of congenital heart disease in which there is an abnormal hole in the dividing wall between the upper filling chambers of the heart – called the atria. ASD is diagnosed and treated successfully with few complications. When such a defect is present, blood flows through the orifice mainly from the left atrium to the right atrium. This type of shunting increases the amount of blood in the right atrium, meaning more blood flows through the lungs than normal. Well, if this condition is not treated, it can lead to major problems in adulthood. Some of the problems may include pulmonary hypertension, congestive heart failure, atrial arrhythmias, and an increased risk of stroke.

Ventricular septal defect – This condition involves a hole in the wall of the heart between the right ventricle and the left ventricle. Normally, blood should not pass through either side of the heart. Some oxygen-rich blood leaks from the left ventricle into the right ventricle and then into the lungs. Sometimes this hole is small and does not cause any serious problems with blood flow. However, if the hole is large, it results in too much blood being pumped into the lungs, leading to heart failure. Next, the heart has to work harder to pump blood around the body. As a result, the heart can become enlarged in some cases.

Tetralogy of Fallot – Tetralogy means fourfold. This means that a total of four defects are found:

Pulmonary stenosis – means narrowing at or below the pulmonary valve.

Ventricular septal A defect is a defect in the wall between the right and left sides of the heart.

Over-riding aorta – where the aorta allows the right ventricle to pump some blue blood directly into it.

Right ventricular hypertrophy – where the right ventricle tightens as it pumps some blood into the narrowed pulmonary artery.

Various procedures are used to correct congenital heart defects in children.

Open heart surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia. An incision is made through the breastbone and a tube is used to return blood through a heart-lung bypass machine. A thoracotomy is performed on the side of the chest, between the ribs. This is also known as closed heart surgery.

It is important to understand the types of heart disease and the treatments available.

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