According To The Communication Process Model Communication Flows Between Opnet Modeler – A Network Simulation Tool

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Opnet Modeler – A Network Simulation Tool

Introduction to OPNET

Optimized Network Engineering Tools (OPNET) is a comprehensive engineering system capable of simulation of large communication networks with detailed protocol modeling and performance analysis. OPNET is designed to provide a comprehensive work environment for network modelers that takes advantage of the state-of-the-art graphics of engineering workstations. The tools provided by OPNET form a tightly-integrated system with the following principle features

Domain specific, hierarchical models -OPNET is specifically designed for the development and analysis of communication networks, and provides a wide range of details not available in simple resource-based simulation packages.

• Models of network hardware and software are hierarchically structured, allowing for extensive reuse of developed models across different simulations. Graphical specification of models – Where possible, specifications are entered graphically with a specialized editor. These editors provide an efficient means of capturing designs through modem user interface methods such as mouse-driven menus and a consistent set of icons.

Automatic simulation generation – Open! Reduces the effort required to develop simulations by providing an efficient event-driven simulation kernel, a library of communications building blocks, and a compiler that takes design specifications and automatically produces executable simulations. Thus the extensive software development process associated with complex system simulations is greatly reduced.

• Analysis tool – A large number of simulation results are required by the engineer for design debugging, evaluation and trade-off analysis. A suite of analysis tools and an interactive debugger provide sophisticated data reduction techniques for summarizing simulation results in an easy-to-interpret graphical form and for observing model behavior in detail.

Flexibility and detailed modeling – Although many details of the structure model in OPNET are done graphically, the protocol and algorithm models use a hybrid approach called Proto-C, which allows users to embed C language code into a graphically specified finite state machine.

The specification of procedures in C is facilitated by an extensive library of support procedures that provide a wide range of simulation services. In addition, code specified externally to the OPNET system can be added to OPNET generated simulations. This ability to compile completely generic high-level-language code gives the user a very high degree of flexibility in creating models at any level of detail.

OPNET can be used in various application areas of communication networks. Some examples of potential applications include local area networks, mobile packet radio networks, ISDN architectures, distributed sensor and control networks, and tactical networks.

Modeling domain

OPNET simulations are based on four separate modeling domains called network, node, process and link Illustrates, network models depend on the definition of node models that include process models. In addition, link models are used to characterize the links between network domains. The design method for simulation is typically bottom-up in which the user first creates a process model, then creates node models that contain the processes, and finally creates a network model populated with node models.

Communicating through links.

Process models are specified in the Proto-C language using a graphical editor to capture the structure of the process in the form of a Finite State Machine (FSM). An FSM contains the logic of a process model in its states and transitions. Process models use a library of kernel processes that support access to packets, network variables, statistics collection, packet communication, and other simulation services.

A link domain allows the inclusion of custom or user-specific link models in OPNET simulations. The communication link between each transceiver pair is constructed as a pipeline that provides the flexibility to specify the transmission media between any two nodes. Link models are written directly in C and added to the simulation.

A node domain consists of a set of modules that can be interconnected from arbitrarily complex node architectures. The processor and queue modules implement process models specified as finite state machines. The generator module stochastically generates packets according to a user-specified probability density function. Transmitter and receiver modules are interfaces to link level modules that transfer packets between nodes.

DomainNode models are instantiated in the network, and each instance can be assigned independent properties, including identity and location, and user-defined properties. At the top level of the network editor, sub network objects that provide additional levels of abstraction can also be created. A network domain consists of physically linked nodes, radio nodes, mobile nodes and satellite nodes.

System structure

The OPNET system is a set of tools that can be divided into three functional areas: specification, simulation, and analysis. The specification area consists of five graphical editors through which users specify their designs; These are the Network Editor, Node Editor, Process Editor, Parameter Editor, and Probe Editor. The simulation area consists of simulation tools and simulation kernels. The Analysis area consists of the Analysis Tool, which processes and graphically presents the simulation results, and the Filter Editor, which is used to create special result-processing filters. These three areas are graphically supported by a built-in window management system called Tool

Network editor:

The tool is used to specify network models, consisting of subnetworks and node objects. Node objects are physical instantiations of node models created in the Node Editor, while nodes can be placed on a dimensional plane for subnetworks as well as at the top or global modeling level, for models that involve physical location. Since the Network Editor represents the most embedded modeling in OPNET, it also provides the necessary operations to bind all lower-level features together into a single executable simulation.

Node editor:

This tool is used to specify node models, which consist of parameterized modules interconnected in an arbitrarily complex graph to represent aspects of the information flow and structure of a particular class of communication nodes. Supported module types include common processors, generators, queues, transmitters and receivers, and antennas.

Process Editor:

This tool is for specifying process models that represent tools, algorithms, or decision-making processes in general. The specifications are based on the finite state machine representation of the Proto-C language and include names of states, transitions between states, conditions for each transition, actions performed when entering or exiting a state or during a transition, temporary and state variables. and formal properties of the process.

Parameter editor:

The tool includes several different editing modes that are used to specify model parameters that are more complex than simple numeric or string input. Parameter types include functions of one or two independent variables, which are specified graphically, and data tables, which are specified through a spreadsheet-like interface. Parameters created in the editor are: probability density function (PDF), packet formats, interface information (ICl) formats and additionally for OPNET/B, antenna pattern and modulation function.

Investigative Editor:

This tool is used to specify data collection requests that can be applied to the simulation at run time so that the executing model can put specific data into an output file. A file created in the Probe Editor contains a list of probes, each of which hierarchically references statistics, modules, nodes, and subnetworks.

A simulation tool:

A simulation tool provides an environment for setting up one or more simulation runs, specifying their input parameters, and directing their collected data into named output files. The simulation tool uses data tables to detail simulations and their parameters.

Analysis tool:

This tool is used to analyze data resulting from simulations that have been collected using probes defined in the Probe Editor or through the Global Statistics reporting mechanism. Data vectors can be plotted with various graph types. Scalar values ​​obtained from multiple simulation runs can be combined and plotted to perform sensitivity analyzes for individual user-defined model parameters.

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