A Very Light Menstrual Flow Or Infrequent Menstrual Cycles Renewable Solar Energy

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Renewable Solar Energy

It is estimated that the sun could supply 10% of the UK’s energy needs by the middle of this century. The sun’s rays fall between 900 and 1,200kWh per square meter over the course of a year – hard to believe on a wet and windy winter day – and can be used to generate electricity either through PV panels (photovoltaic) or hot water with solar thermal. panel

PV panels

PV panels generate energy from the sun. Without getting too technical, photons of light transfer their energy to electrons in a silicon crystal and produce a direct current with a voltage equivalent to 12V. This is then put through an inverter to make it suitable for 240V circuits.

The panels are ideal for buildings that use a lot of electricity during the day, such as offices, but should never be used in isolation, as they require expensive batteries to store the electricity they generate.

An average PV panel has an output capacity of 1.5 to 2kWp. This is enough for a fifth of the annual electricity needs of an average home. However, energy production varies seasonally and affects the cost of electrical fittings. At the height of summer, the entire output may be able to meet all of the building’s needs.

Three types of systems are available:

Monocrystalline panels are the most effective harvesters of about 15% of the total energy capacity – the rest is lost in the conversion process; Polycrystalline panels are less efficient, harvesting 13% of potential energy; And thin-film amorphous silicon panels only 7% – only really feasible on buildings with large roofs.

Providing the panels are set at the same pitch as the roof and do not stand too proud of the roof profile, planning permission should allow. However, it is worth checking the local authority’s past record on these issues.

Once installed, there are no running or maintenance costs, and the panels should last more than 30 years, without occasional wiping.

Until now, the use of PV panels has been low. This is largely because the payback period can be very long – anything from 60 to 120 years – because the UK energy industry pays such a low rate for any energy sold back to the grid.

Elsewhere in Europe, some countries are required to buy back electricity at three times the rate of payback, thus significantly reducing payback times and increasing panel adoption.

Solar thermal panels

In Europe, the solar heating market grew by 18% in 2005. 25,000 new domestic solar water heating installations are expected in the UK by 2010, increasing to 75,000 by 2020.

Solar water heating systems collect the energy radiated by the sun and convert it into useful heat in the form of hot water. As hot water needs are low in offices, its main use is in domestic affairs where it can provide about 50% of the hot water during the summer months and throughout the year, according to the Energy Saving Trust. Depending on the fuel replaced, it can reduce CO2 emissions by 0.4 to 0.75 tonnes per year.

Two types of systems are available. Flat plates are the cheaper, less efficient option. These baffles are generally rectangular shaped panels, work best on hot days and use a metal absorbent plate, which is exposed to the water pipes.

Evacuated tubes are more efficient and, therefore, more expensive. Their energy is derived from light, which enters a ‘vacuum flask’ type glass tube and is converted into heat in water by contact with an absorbent such as black paint.

Both systems pump heated water (mixed with antifreeze) through heat exchangers connected to hot water tanks.

Panel sizes range from 0.7m² to 8m² – evacuated tubes generally take up less space. Most manufacturers will generally suggest that one panel will supply a home with two-thirds of its annual hot water needs.

Flat plate panels are expected to last 10 to 25 years and hollow tubes 20 to 35 years. Payback is usually 10 years.

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