A Two Dimensional Flow Is Defined By Its Components Equine Foot Function – New Research Calls Into Question Current Beliefs of Equine Foot Function

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Equine Foot Function – New Research Calls Into Question Current Beliefs of Equine Foot Function

There are several theories for the function of the horse’s foot, most referring to the function of the digital cushion-lateral cartilage anatomy. A closer examination of the digital cushion and lateral cartilage anatomy and relationship to the surrounding tissues calls the current theory into question. The two most widely accepted theories on foot function are the depression theory, the pressure theory, and more recently the hemodynamic theory. A review of those theories and an introduction to new theory on foot function follow.

The Indifference theory Pastern movement in the digital cushion during the impact phase of stride causes the digital cushion to force the foot cartilage outward, aiding in circulation and energy management.

The pressure theory Using ground (solar) contact, the frog forces the lateral cartilages outward by pushing upward into the digital cushion. Both theories predict that the digital cushion and accompanying vasculature play a role in energy management, with the digital cushion absorbing energy. 1

The Hemodynamic theory Attempts to define the hemodynamic function of the digital cushion have also suggested that during ground impact, outward extension of the foot cartilage occurs through contact of the bars with the axial projections of the cartilage and downward movement of the bony column. Digital pillow. When this occurs, it is hypothesized that the venous blood in the vessels of the palmar aspect of the foot is forced into the microscopic venous blood vessels in the vascular vessels of the ungular cartilage of the foot. Hydraulic resistance dissipates high energy to flow through the microvasculature. Thus it is hypothesized that the hemodynamic action of the leg accounts for the negative pressure noted in the intermediate position, noting that the negative pressure will allow the blood vessels to refill before the next leg falls. Rapid outward motion of the ankle cartilage. 2

Research into the structures attached to the cartilage of the foot and the digital cushion provides evidence that may contradict the pressure, depression, and hemodynamic theories and supports many aspects of the fourth theory, The Theory of Suspension of Hoof Dynamics (TM).

An examination of those structures may occur Work in concert Cartilage and digital cushion are essential to form a working hypothesis for foot function. We need to address areas that have otherwise been overlooked in previous attempts to understand foot function.

The Coronary band and its attachments are very poorly defined compared to the ligaments, cartilages, and digital cushions of the foot. The angular cartilages and their connection to the extensor processes can be an important piece of the puzzle in the quest to define the proper function of the foot. The coronary band (pulvinus corona) lies in the coronary groove immediately distal to the periople corium, proximal to the parietal surface of the distal phalanx and abaxial to the inferior cartilage of the foot.

In vitro studies of the coronary band suggest that the foot ligament and its relationship to the foot cartilage may play an important role in hemodynamic flow.3

The suspension theory of Hoof Dynamics (TM) hypothesizes that during the ground impact phase, the pastern begins to descend, causing the lateral cartilage of the foot to move outward. This occurs as a result of ligamentous, fibrous and fascial attachment effects, and displacement caused by the second phalanx as opposed to digital cushion displacement. Displacement of the cartilage by distal palmar movement of P2 causes pressure on the leg veins and Resistance provided by the coronary band and its attachments Limit venous blood flow.

The suspension theory of Hoof Dynamics(TM) further postulates that just before mid stance, the pastern begins to ascend, leaving venous blood now. under pressure. This rapid exchange of blood under pressure A negative pressure will be generated in the leg from the ungular cartilage and coronary vasculature to the right palmar digital vein. This action would likely disprove both the pressure and depression theories, as well as dispel the concept that hoof extension is responsible for finding negative pressure in the digital cushion in the medial position. Suspension theory redefines hemodynamic function, to include hemodynamic responses.

The degree to which resistance to venous blood is achieved during the stance phase depends on several factors, including the health of the internal arch apparatus (all foot structures, defined as the lower hoof capsule), pastern mobility, and amount of strength. The greater the force, the greater the movement of the pastern, the more resistance the coronary bands, ligaments and cartilage must provide. The amount of pressure inside the foot during the impact and stance phase will be directly proportional to the pastern movement and the resistance to extension provided by the cartilage, coronary band and hoof capsule. This then becomes a measure of pressure and the health of the hoof capsule, connective tissue, ungular cartilage and digital cushion which will determine hemodynamic response and energy expenditure. All directional movements of the angular cartilage, including distal palmar movements of P2, will result in a variable restriction of proximal blood flow from the foot. The medio-lateral and proximal-distal movement of the palmar axial projection of the lateral cartilage is likely to be influential in timing, and the ratio of pressure and force occurring during the impact and stance phases of stride.4 can easily do this. To understand why the coronary band has been overlooked as an important component in energy management, the coronary band is generally considered to be of flexible nature. 5,6,7

Anatomical evidence further supports our hypothesis of a Functional internal arch appliancewhere all structures Work in concert To control hemodynamic flow, hemodynamic response and energy management. This hypothesis seems to rule out the simplistic view that the frog’s primary function is to pump blood or serve as a vehicle for the necessary displacement of the digital cushion, as stated in the pressure and depression theory. The STHD defines the strip/wall angle and its relationship to the palmar axial projection of the angular cartilage as the primary stimulus for pastern movement after impact, which would explain why performance horses are able to withstand the energy generated here. speed, lower than healthy frogs. Injuries to feet with poor heel structure are seen more often than in sick frogs, although sick frogs often accompany poor heels. While shoeing would support depression, pressure, and hemodynamic theories, it would not support STHD. Depression, pressure, hemodynamic theories only require extension and contraction of the palmar aspect of the foot, where as suspension theory requires cartilage and three-dimensional deformation of the palmar aspect of the foot.

1. Bowker RM, New Theory Navicular, News Release, March 1999, Mich. State can help prevent

university,

2. Dyhre-Poulsen P, Smedgaard HH, Roed J, et al: Pressure-tested horse hoof function.

A transducer inside the hoof and an accelerometer mounted on the first phalanx, Equine Vet J 26:362, 1994

3. La Pierre KC, Lord RA, et al: Unpublished data. Coronary Band Functional Anatomy: A Biomechanical Study, 2006

4. Denoix JM, The Equine Distal Limb, An Atlas of Clinical Anatomy and Comparative Imaging, ed 4th, 2005, London, Manson Publishing Ltd.

5. Butler D, Butler KD, The Principles of Horseshoeing, 3rd edition, p. 219, Doug Butler Enterprises, Co. 2004

6. Dollar AW, Elastic tissues of the foot, in: Handbook of Horse Shoeing, New York: Jenkins.

Veterinary Publisher and Bookseller, 1898;15-16

7. Egerbacher M, Helmreich H, et al, The digital cushion in horses contains rough connective tissue, myxoid tissue and cartilage but only little unilocular fat tissue, Anut, Histol, Embryol, vol 34, 2:112, 2005

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