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Different Stages Of Wastewater Treatment At Sewage Treatment Plants
There are regulations and standards set by local as well as federal governments in the collection and management of wastewater going to wastewater treatment plants. Wastewater can be collected and treated by local wastewater treatment plants. Local wastewater treatment plants use biofilters, septic tanks, or anaerobic treatment systems. If these facilities are not available, it is transported through sewers to the main sewage treatment plant operated by the municipal government of the area. Each city has its pipe infrastructure designed and properly designed for this specific purpose.
If you have ever wondered where domestic waste water goes and is it suitable for recycling, a sewage treatment plant is definitely the answer. Wastewater treatment plants separate and treat contaminants from wastewater and clean it. Domestic sewage consists of liquid waste that comes out of bathrooms, toilets, laundry stations, kitchens and others. Domestic wastewater is actually divided into 2 groups: gray water and blackwater. Greywater is liquid waste from washing dishes and clothes and showering. Black water includes feces and urine.
Domestic wastewater treatment is mainly based on black water. Black water is a growth medium for pathogenic bacteria which if untreated and disposed of improperly can cause diseases and also harm the environment. It is essential to treat black water before discharging it into water bodies such as rivers, lakes and streams. Blackwater is also called sewage. Domestic wastewater management in treatment plants is grouped into three stages: primary, secondary and tertiary.
The main objective of the primary stage is to separate solid waste from liquid waste materials. This is important because the treatment of solid waste is different from the treatment of liquid waste. Sedimentation is used in the separation process. Sewage is stored in large sedimentation tanks. These sedimentation tanks are large enough that light solids such as oil fats and grease will float to the top and sludge or heavy solids will settle to the bottom. Floating solids are to be skimmed off. In the second stage, the dissolved organic matter is removed. This is done by natural aquatic microorganisms. The collected solid waste is specially processed to fit for recycling or disposal. Secondary treatment systems are classified as follows: activated sludge, fixed film systems, and suspended growth systems.
In the third stage of sewage treatment plants, the goal is to improve the quality of the water passed through the second stage. The fluid is treated with chemical and physical agents to remove contaminants or all unwanted mass. During filtration, sand is used to prevent the flow of dissolved substances in water. Toxins not filtered by the sand will be absorbed by adsorbents such as activated charcoal to separate them from the water. Charcoal helps remove residual toxins. At this stage, elimination of nitrogen and phosphorus also occurs through biological oxidation to nitrification and subsequent de-nitrification. The liquid is cleaned before it is released into the natural environment or reused for different purposes.
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