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Tayna: A Faint Little Galaxy Lights Up
The star-splattered galaxies of the cosmos ignited long ago, and their glittering stellar inhabitants lit up–with their strange, terrible fires–the strange kind of darkness that once existed throughout space and time. The earliest galaxies were only one-tenth the size of our own massive, large spiral galaxy, but they were just as bright. This is because they were rapidly giving birth to very hot, very bright new baby stars. These extremely bright, though relatively small, primordial galaxy structures served as the “seeds” of the mature galaxies that inhabit today’s universe—such as our own galaxy. In December 2015, astronomers used the combined power of NASA Hubble (HST) And Spitzer (SST) Space Telescope, They announced that they had discovered the faintest object ever seen in the ancient universe–and that this small galaxy, which existed long ago and far away, was already there. there Our universe was born just 400 million years after the Big Bang, which was about 14 billion years ago.
The team has nicknamed this small and very ancient amorphous galaxy Tainawhich translates to “first born” in Aymara, spoken by the people of the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America.
Although both HST And SST While other galaxies have been discovered that are record-holders for distance, this small, faint galaxy is an example of a small, dim class of newborn galaxies that until this study had generally slipped from detection.
“Thanks to this discovery, the team has been able for the first time to study the properties of very faint objects long after the Big Bang,” said the study’s lead author, Dr. Commented by Leopoldo Infante on December 3, 2015. HubbleSITE Press Release. Dr. is an astronomer from Infante Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile). The very distant object is part of a search that has seen 22 young galaxies in our very early universe and is located almost on the observable horizon. VisibleOr Observablethe world
The Visible The universe is that relatively A small domain of the entire unimaginably vast cosmos that we can observe. Anything that exists beyond this horizon is beyond our range of visibility. The reason for this is that due to the expansion of space, there has not been enough time for light from those very distant objects to reach us since the Big Bang birth of our universe. No known signal in the universe can travel faster than light in a vacuum, and light traveling toward us from distant and ancient celestial objects beyond our cosmic horizon cannot travel toward us faster than this cosmic speed limit. Time is the fourth dimension. The three spatial dimensions of our familiar world are up-down, back-and-forth, and side-to-side. It is impossible to find an object in space without finding it in time. Hence, the post Space time. The farther out in space a bright celestial object is, the older it is in time. In astronomy, long ago.
The cosmos we observe today dances with the raging, bright fire of billions and billions of twinkling stars, inhabiting more than 100 billion galaxies nestled in that relatively small region– Visible universe
Immediately after the Big Bang birth of our universe, about 13.8 billion years ago, there was a dark, mysterious age without light. The universe was a strange expanse of incredible, featureless blackness. This very ancient age is called Global Dark Ages, and it culminated in a grand, dramatic finale when the first generations of bright baby stars were born to shed their extraordinary light into this universal ring of eternal, strange darkness. The first galaxies were opaque, dark clouds of primordial gas, gathering together in the center. Dark matter halos, and they pulled into the first nursery of roiling, shiny, huge and hungry baby stars. The dark matter is a mysterious substance. It is probably composed of some unknown exotic atomic-atom particles that do not interact with light or any other form of electromagnetic radiation and are therefore invisible. transparent dark matter The badly misnamed so-called “ordinary” atomic matter is far more abundant than the matter that makes up our familiar world and what we can see. In fact, “normal” atomic matter, or Baryonic matter, makes up only 4% of the mass-energy of the cosmos. But “good things come in small packages.” So-called “common” nuclear matter is the valuable stuff of planets, stars, moons, and people, and it holds for virtually all the elements listed in the Familiar. the periodic table. Nuclear matter is the life-giving stuff in our universe.
For about three hundred thousand years since the beginning of the Big Bang, the universe was a witch’s soup of glowing-hot plasma. Finally, Proton (J, with neutron, form the nuclei of atoms) and electron (which surrounds the nuclei of atoms in the cloud) fused together to form hydrogen – the lightest and most abundant atomic element in the universe. About 700 million years after the birth of the first bright baby stars and newborn galaxies, this was the universe. reionized. That is, something tore apart the existing atoms and converted hydrogen into its element. Proton And Neutron
Scientists know very little about the mysterious, ancient period when the first galaxies were born. However, it is generally believed that mostly opaque clouds of hydrogen are collected along transparent, invisible heavy filaments. dark matter dense part of dark matter A cloud of primordial, primordial hydrogen gas was lifted with a powerful gravitational tug.
Long ago and far away, invisible dark matter Pulled towards the original gas clouds. These pools of gas became the nurseries for the first generation of baby stars to light up the cosmos. The gravity of the filaments of this dark and mysterious material, which weaves Cosmic Web All space and time, drawn upon its atom hunting until enclosing clouds of gas form bubbles like onyx beads in transparent halos dark matter Black onyx-like clouds of ancient gas floated down, down, down in the dark heart of these invisible halos, emerging like beautiful black beads on the web of this magnificent and strange cosmic spider.
Slowly, relentlessly, swirling primitive gases and transparent, strange dark matter Spread throughout the ancient world, mixing themselves together eventually gave rise to the structures we see today.
Nature’s magnifying glass
Astronomers know very little about the ancient period when the first galaxies formed. However, nature provided a valuable gift Gravitational lens. Gravitational lensing A phenomenon proposed by Albert Einstein when he realized that gravity has the ability to warp, distort, and bend light–and therefore has lens-like properties.
Einstein’s First Theorem relativity, The Special theory of relativity (1905), describes a space that is compared to an artist’s canvas. The artist takes her paint brush and draws lines and dots on this amazing canvas, representing the stage on which the universal drama is being played – rather than the play itself. A decade later, the great achievement of uniting theater with drama was presented by Einstein. General theory of relativity (1915). Accordingly General relativity, Space becomes one of the leading actors in this best of all dramas. Space tells how to move mass and mass tells how to curve space. Spacetime is as flexible as a rubber sheet. Drop an object as heavy as a bowling ball on the surface of this strange sheet, and it creates dimples in the fabric–much like how a large object’s gravity affects space. If a handful of eight small marbles are thrown onto a rubber sheet where a bowling ball has formed a dimple, they will travel in a curved path around the bowling ball. Imagine that a bowling ball is a massive object like our sun, and the marbles are the eight major planets in our solar system. If the bowling ball is removed, the marbles will follow a straight path. Without a heavy bowling ball, no Gravity well–There are no dimples in the fabric that can mimic the behavior of gravity in the universe. The planets travel according to the greater magnitude of the sun’s gravity, the stretched fabric that represents spacetime.
In astrophysics, A Gravity Well (Gravity Well) A gravitational potential field around a massive body. The larger the body, the deeper and wider good which belongs to him.
therefore, General relativity A dense collection of mass in the universe, viewed from our planet, is predicted to refract light traveling like a magnifying glass, a lens hidden behind the mass. First Gravitational lens Seen in 1979, and today Lensing Enables astronomers to observe very faint objects in the ancient universe shortly after their birth so many billions of years ago.
When the path the stray light takes is too far from the foreground Lensing mass or, alternatively, if the mass is not particularly great, Weak lensing occurs. Weak lensing Just distorts the background a bit lensed Traveling light emitting object. However, when the lensed The object is located almost exactly behind Lensing mass, Strong lensing can happen Strong lensing Expansive objects—such as galaxies—are called Einstein’s ring which is around Lensing A galaxy or group of galaxies. however, Strong lensing Point-like, small celestial objects frequently form multiple images–a Einstein cross–Emitting a dazzling light around the lens
Taina: A faint little galaxy lit up
A newly discovered super-gray object, which resides in the ancient and distant cosmos, is massive. Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a shapeless, small satellite galaxy of our own galaxy. A newly discovered, very faint dwarf galaxy is churning out hot, bright and sparkling stars ten times faster than the Milky Way. LMC. Indeed, this remote object, which dazzled the cosmos long ago, may be forming the accretionary core of matter that will evolve into a large, full-sized galaxy like our own.
As a result, a faint, ancient galaxy appeared Gravitational lensing— Nature has its own “magnifying glass” in space. As a part of it Frontiers Field program, HST The vast cluster of dubbed galaxies kept a close eye on the sky MACS J0416.1-2403, which is located about 4 billion light-years away and weighs about one million billion Suns. This massive galaxy cluster acts as a powerful natural lens by bending and magnifying the light of more-distant objects behind it. In a way that has been likened to a “zoom lens” on a camera, the gravity of the massive cluster magnifies the intensity of the light in the remote faint. protogalaxy, It appears to be 20 times brighter than it actually is.
The distance to an ancient, faint galaxy was estimated by astronomers who worked together to create color profiles. HST And SST Image. Light traveling through distant galaxies is stretched, or red-shifted, with increasing distance due to the expansion of the universe. Although the vast majority of newborn stars in the Milky Way are intrinsically blue-white, their stray light has been converted to infrared wavelengths that can be measured. HST And SST. Galaxies also appear redder due to absorption by cold, intergalactic hydrogen.
The research is published in the December 3, 2015 issue Astrophysical JournalAnd this suggests that the ancient universe may have been heavily populated with galaxies that could be targeted in the future James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Astronomers expect JWST To help them observe the embryonic stages of the birth of galaxies shortly after the Big Bang.
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