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Exceptions To The Rule: The Speed Of Light (And Gravity?)
In the theory of relativity, if there is anything that is not intuitive, it is the fact that in the universe, only the speed of light (and gravity?) is absolute or constant, not that space is absolute or time is absolute. . It is not intuitive that all the other non-light bits and pieces that are dynamic can be added or subtracted. The only exception to the universal rule that velocities can be mathematically combined is the speed of light (and gravity?).
Repeat for emphasis: The inconsistency here is that in any other situation, anything that is not light and not moving can be added and subtracted from speed. Repeat again: With the exception of the speed of light, velocities can be added or subtracted. If you are on a treadmill that rotates to the left at 5 MPH and you walk on it to the right at 5 MPH, to an external observer who is standing still even though you are awake. You are more likely to hit a home run if the wind blows toward the outfield fence; Airplanes fly faster with a tailwind than a headwind; You swim faster in the river than the current. If you are on a train moving at 100 km/h and you throw a ball at 10 km/h in the direction the train is moving, then your ball is traveling at 110 km/h. Hours If you throw a ball towards the back of a train, an outside observer will measure the ball as moving at 90 km/h. On the other hand, if you shine a flashlight on a train, an outside observer will see the resulting light beam moving at the speed of light – the speed of light plus the speed of the train, or not the speed of light. Minus the speed of the train, but at the speed of light! It’s nuts, but it’s scientifically nuts, and it’s been proven over and over again in any experiment you want to create. I have no problem with empirically verified results. That doesn’t mean I don’t have an inconsistency problem.
The speed of light is constant to an external observer, no matter what. No one knows why this should be, but it is. However, my take on this can of worms, which requires a bit of counter-intuition as a result that both time and length must be flexible, is that one should always be a little suspicious when it comes to the Lone Ranger, the Lone Ranger. Exceptions to the rule*. I don’t like exceptions to the rule. There is something strange here. Mother Nature is trying to tell us something we haven’t discovered yet.
Having said that, the speed of light is not constant, if you consider the different mediums light can travel through. However, the speed of light is probably constant in any other medium as well. The speed of light in air at STP (standard temperature and pressure) is less than the speed of light in the relative vacuum of outer space; Less travel through clean water and less travel through clean glass again. One would assume that just as the speed of light in space is constant for observers, the speed of light in water should be constant if they are traveling in a high-speed spaceship, or if the astronauts travel to the International Space Station as ‘stationary’. A crew in a submarine operating in this way or a diver standing on the seabed.
It makes me wonder, theoretically, if you could get an underwater submarine to go faster than the speed of light in water (or an airplane to go faster than the speed of light in air), it would be less in either case. The speed of light in a vacuum, so can you claim, with the qualifiers (in water; air), that you actually traveled faster than the speed of light, just for bragging rights?
Besides light (photons), presumably gravity or gravitational-waves also propagate at the speed of light, and thus the speed of gravitational-waves is constant regardless of any frame of reference for any observer. But I also assume that an imaginary graviton particle needs to be found (to mirror the photon) and that it lives in an unknown basket for a moment.
This creates another puzzle. According to general relativity gravity is just geometry, or gravity is a force transmitted by a force particle, theoretical gravity, and thus more similar to the photon of electromagnetism (infinite expansion; obeys an inverse square relationship) except for the lack of a negative counterpoint to EM – in the case of gravity, it is anti-gravitational.
Speaking of gravity (gravity) and light (photons), if gravity can affect light (ie – gravitational lensing), then it should be a two-way street and light should be able to have an observable effect on gravity, but I don’t recall ever reading about that aspect of the relationship.
medium dependent on the speed of light; One velocity in vacuum, another velocity in water, raises an interesting question when considering gravity. If a gravitational-wave approaches the Earth, will it have a constant velocity in the vacuum of space for all observers, then a different velocity as it passes through our atmosphere, another velocity as it passes through the ocean, and another value when it hits? Different density levels in the planet?
As is often the case, there are more questions than answers!
*Not that different laws of the speed of light versus one-another light speed are exceptions to the rule in modern physics. Quantum tunneling is one of the exceptions to the law of causality. In terms of cosmology and the Standard Model of the Big Bang, first there was nothing; Then something happened. That is, the Big Bang event created both matter and energy out of thin air. This is also a free lunch and an exception to the laws of physics that are often expressed as conservation of matter and energy. All these exceptions suggest that some of the final chapters of modern physics have yet to be written.
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#Exceptions #Rule #Speed #Light #Gravity