A Property Of Fluid That Shows Resistance To Flow Gravity Die Casting

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Gravity Die Casting

With sand casting the mold is broken after each casting operation, but with a process known as gravity die casting, a mold called a ‘die’ is also made of metal and can be used in large quantities. This means that it is more expensive to make a die than an expendable ‘use only’ mold. An intermediate technique uses a semi-permanent mold, made of gypsum plaster or fireclay, which can be used repeatedly for a limited number of castings. With gravity die casting, the most widely used materials for die-making are cast iron, steel, and heat-resistant alloys of iron. Other materials are used to make the die for certain purposes and may include aluminum. copper or graphite. The metal die can produce smooth castings with clean surfaces and very high dimensional accuracy. These castings require little or no final machining or other finishing treatments. The service life of metal dies varies with the number of castings they can produce and depends on factors such as the casting material, the thermal metal shock resistance of the die material, the temperature at which it is poured, and the casting method used.

There are many different details to consider when designing the pattern from which the die is made. For example, pour-gate systems and risers must be considered so that the walls of the mold can act as a quenching action on the molten metal so that it solidifies faster than sand casting. Also the die must be provided with channels at the joints and air vent holes so that hot metal air can escape from the interior of the die. The die must also be constructed so as not to restrict shrinkage of the metal as it cools. Shrinkage can cause problems when designing the cores that make up the castings. Usually the cores are made of steel or a special alloy, and sometimes compacted sand or shale cores are used.

To prevent the casting metal from sticking to the die, the die may be given an internal coating of chalk, clay or bone ash with water glass as a binder. This mixture can be applied to the dye by spraying, rubbing or dipping.

With simple casting the molten metal can be poured on top. The design should be such that the molten metal can flow quickly through all parts of the die without disturbance. For metals with low melting points the die is sometimes heated to prevent premature solidification, and for metals with high melting points, the die must be artificially cooled after each casting operation.

Gently moving or tilting the die during casting reduces turbulence and allows the metal to flow more easily, especially when heavy castings are being produced. For awkwardly shaped castings, a vacuum can be applied to aid in filling the die. Slush casting is a technique used for ornamental or hollow casting: molten metal is poured into a die, and when a solid shell of sufficient thickness is formed, the remaining liquid is poured off.

Although die casting is cheaper than sand casting, die tooling is more expensive and a large number of castings must be produced to make the process cost-effective.

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