# A Process Flow Chart Includes Includes Only Productive Activities Some Lean Six Sigma Tools – Analyse, Improve and Control

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## Some Lean Six Sigma Tools – Analyse, Improve and Control

Lean Six Sigma’s cost, speed, and quality leaps are achieved through the use of appropriate tools. We conclude by reviewing some of the tools in the analysis, improvement, and control phases of DMAIC.

Analysis phase

Purpose of Analysis:

This phase identifies and verifies the relationship between causes and their effects when implementing Lean Six Sigma. It helps in identifying the factors affecting key process inputs and outputs. The analysis phase tries to find patterns in the data obtained during the measurement phase to make sense of it all.

Tools for Analysis:

Scatter Plots:

Two variables are plotted against each other on a graph. The resulting picture provides a visual indication of how well the variables are correlated.

Regression Analysis:

It can be considered as the mathematical equivalent of a scatter plot. Here an equation is derived to express the dependence of one variable on one or more others. The equation can then be used to predict the values ​​of the dependent variable for given values ​​of the independent variables.

Fish Bone Diagram:

A large arrow is drawn with the effect whose causes are being analyzed shown to the right at the end of the arrow. The main categories of possible causes are shown on branches branching off from the main line. For each category, detailed reasons are brainstormed and indicated against the respective branch.

x-process

Time Trap Analysis and Capacity Constraint Identification:

A time trap is a process activity that delays the process and may be due to capacity constraints or other operational inefficiencies. Whatever the source of the delay, it ultimately shows up as long lead times. A capacity constraint is a sub-process or activity whose output per unit time is less than that of the preceding and/or subsequent sub-process or activity.

From a value stream map, each process activity is examined to determine its contribution to customer requirements. Those that do not contribute to customer-valued outcomes and are not necessary for other business reasons (eg regulatory requirements) are eliminated.

Improvement stage

Purpose of Improvement:

In previous phases, defects (variability outside of customer characteristics) and waste (non-value-added activities and costs) were identified, measured, and their causes explored through analysis. The purpose of the improvement phase is to eliminate defects and waste.

Tools to Improve:

To Be Process Maps: A map of the desired process is created, with non-value-added activities eliminated.

Setup Reduction:

From the analysis of capacity constraints and time traps performed during the analysis phase, we could determine that the main source of delay was due to long setup times. In this case, the following steps are applied.

* Document and categorize the setup process

* Improve organization-study work area layout and analyze necessary movements. Use 5S if needed to eliminate inefficiencies. Opportunities to improve churn in setup steps.

* Convert internal (setup activities performed with the machine down) to external (setup activities that do not affect the running of the machine) process where possible. In a transactional situation, this means converting serial processes to parallel ones.

* Improve the rest of the internal setup process.

* Eliminate the need for adjustment.

5S:

This lean tool results in a clean and organized work area, with space for everything and everything in its place. The steps of the procedure are:

* sort

* Straighten up

* To shine

* Standardization

* Sustain

Applying 5S eliminates inefficiencies caused by lack of organization by reducing the amount of unnecessary movement and transportation.

Total productive maintenance

Where downtime is a major cause of low process cycle efficiency, total productive maintenance, which aims to reduce the percentage of downtime, must be implemented.

Proving a mistake:

By properly designing processes and equipment, the possibility of errors (and the need for inspection with them) is eliminated. Examples are designing online forms that cannot be submitted if data is entered incompletely or incorrect data is entered. These are similar parts that can only be assembled in one way.

Design of Experiments:

It is a statistical design of experiments that enables you to determine the effect of two or more variables on another variable of interest. It also accounts for interaction effects between instrumental variables.

Hypothesis testing:

It is a statistical tool for testing the validity of hypotheses. In this case, hypotheses may relate to the influence of causes on outcomes. For example, if performance is suspected to be operator dependent, tests can be performed to verify whether the differences in performance between two operators are statistically significant.

Solution Selection Matrix:

Generally more than one possible solution to the problem under consideration will be identified. A selection matrix compares them using a set of weighted criteria to determine the most appropriate.

Project Management:

The actual implementation of the agreed solutions will be in the form of a project and will require the use of usual project management tools for planning, communication, risk assessment and monitoring.

control phase

Purpose of Control:

The objective of the control phase is to ensure that the gains from the improvement phase are incorporated into the organization.

Tools for Control:

Standard Operating Procedures:

Improved process design will certainly involve new work methods. This must be codified in an operating manual that operators can refer to. Having a standard operating manual helps avoid slipping into old inefficient practices.

Statistical Process Control:

Control charts reflecting process improvement capabilities should be created and used to monitor process performance over time.

Visual Management:

The essence of visual management is captured in the idea that an employee should be able to move through the work area and carry 90% of the information. This is achieved through 5S organization, process step diagrams placed close to the process, SIPOC diagrams and value stream maps, use of shadow boards etc.

conclusion

The list of tools considered in this article and the last are some of the many available. On any one project, only a few are likely to be used.

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