# A Pressure Differential Is Created When Fluid Flow Is Plastic Viscosity

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## Plastic Viscosity

Plastic Viscosity (PV) is the resistance of a fluid to flow. According to the Bingham plastic model, PV is the slope of shear stress and shear rate. In the field, we can obtain PV from a viscometer. Typically, viscometers are used to measure shear rates at 600, 300, 200, 100, 6, and 3 revolutions per minute (rpm).

From the difference between the 600 and 300 rpm readings we can calculate the PV.

The formula looks like this: Plastic Viscosity (PV) = Reading at 600 rpm – Reading at 300 rpm

The unit of PV is Centi Poise (CP).

For example, you have these values ​​from a viscometer.

Reading at 600 rpm = 56

Reading at 300 rpm = 35

Plastic Viscosity (PV) = 56 – 35 = 21 CP

Any increase in the solid content of the drilling mud, such as barite, drill solids, lost circulation material, etc., will increase the viscosity of the plastic. To reduce PV, you must reduce solids content that can be achieved by using solids control equipment and/or diluting the drilling mud with base fluid. With increasing temperatures while drilling deeper, the plastic viscosity of the drilling mud will decrease as the viscosity of the parent fluid decreases.

Generally, the heavier the mud weight, the higher the PV. However, if you have an increasing PV trend with constant mud weight, this means that the mud system has increased ultra-fine drill solids content. Also, if you are using an oil base mud, please remember that the emulsified water in the oil base drilling fluid will act like a solid and will increase the viscosity dramatically.

Several effects of PV on drilling operations are as follows;

Equivalent circulation density (ECD) – The more PV you have, the higher the ECD.

Surge and swab pressure – PV has the same effect as ECD. If the PV increases, the surge and swab pressure will increase.

Differential sticking – The opportunity for differential sticking will increase, especially in water base muds, when the viscosity of the plastic increases as the solids content increases.

Rate of Entry (ROP) – ROP will be directly affected by plastic viscosity. If you drill a well with a high PV drilling mud, you will drill at a slower ROP than a low PV mud.

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