A Place Where Groundwater Flows Out Into The Surface Understanding Hydrology

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Understanding Hydrology

Hydrology deals with all forms of water on earth, its occurrence, distribution, circulation, physical properties, chemical properties, its impact on the environment and all forms of life. It is an interdisciplinary science. The study of the occurrence, distribution and movement of water below the surface is known as groundwater hydrology.

Approximately 97% of the total water is found in oceans and seas as salt water. Only 3% is fresh water, more than half of which is locked up in ice sheets and glaciers. The rest is groundwater.

Formations of water-bearing rocks are known as aquifers. Clays and shales are known as aquifers, which contain sufficient water but only a small portion of which can be transmitted.

Unsaturated limestone and unsaturated granite or basalt fall under the category of aquifers. They are impermeable and therefore neither contain nor transmit water. Aquitard is a semipermeable formation and can transmit water at a very slow rate. An example is a clay lens cemented with sand.

The concept of hydrologic was first correctly formulated by Sir Vitruvius.

The interdependence and continuous movement of all phases of water, i.e. liquid, solid and gas form the basis of the hydrological cycle. This is a central concept in hydrology.

There are various processes involved in the cyclic movement of water such as condensation, precipitation, condensation, evaporation, etc.

Inflow = difference between outflow plus or minus storage. This is called the water balance equation.

The porosity of saturated materials determines the amount of groundwater storage. The ability to transmit a fluid is known as permeability.

Porosity is a measure of voids in a rock formation. This is calculated using the equation v/V, where ‘v’ is the volume of voids and ‘V’ is the total volume of the rock.

According to Sir Darcy, the velocity of flow in any porous medium is proportional to the hydraulic gradient.

Aquifers act as reservoirs for groundwater storage and pipelines for groundwater movement.

Water plays a major role in the transport of chemicals. It has some distinctive features. Pure water is colorless, tasteless and odorless. The unique nature is due to its molecular structure. It is this unique form that facilitates the solubility of many of its substances.

There is an urgent need to monitor and control the increasing human impact on water chemistry due to various types of pollution. Discharge of industrial waste into water is a major cause of concern.

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