A Place Where Groundwater Flows Out Into The Surface Drainage Analysis of Mountainous Watersheds in Ras Al Khaimah Emirate, UAE

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Drainage Analysis of Mountainous Watersheds in Ras Al Khaimah Emirate, UAE

I. Introduction

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is devoid of any rivers or perennial streams. However, many wadis and valley beds of various grades are present. Vadis are mostly dry but they are flooded in their territory only during monsoons. Rainfall generation from one wadi to another behaves differently depending on the topography and the nature of the headwater catchment. In the mountains, floods are the result of heavy rainfall where a small portion of the rainwater enters the wadi and causes a large flood discharge. Hence most of the annual rainfall reaches the plains which are associated with relatively high annual runoff. The average annual flow of major wadis in the UAE is around 120 MCM [1]. Both infiltration and flow are observed in the piedmont area. Therefore, heavy rainfall can cause runoff, even in permeable areas (gravel fields). A major portion of the annual rainfall in this area is drained into the dune region. In regions where runoff is almost nonexistent, evaporation is the only water loss. Water loss is directly proportional to the number of days of rainfall and its depth.

Morphological parameters are the main factors affecting surface runoff generation, surface water yield, maximum discharge, flooding and groundwater recharge. Hence these parameters are essential for predicting and analyzing the flood and recharge aspects of basins.

Surface water assessment is also required for water management including flood control, recharge assessment and use of surface water in watersheds. Drainage analysis was carried out through the analysis of morphological parameters as well as the use of rainfall-runoff models. In the present study, Ras Al Khaimah area in Northern Emirates was selected for drainage analysis. Fig. 1 presents the location map for the study area. Al Bih, the largest of the other wadis, was considered for rainfall-runoff assessment.

II. Characterization of morphological parameters

Every hydrologic design is different because the factors affecting the design vary from location to location. Important factors such as geomorphological parameters and watershed land use, as well as storage volume. Morphometric parameters have been used in various studies of geomorphology and surface water hydrology, such as flood characteristics and sediment yield.

Morphometric analysis of any watershed provides information about the topography, geological condition and flow capacity of the area. Morphometric analysis is the measurement of the three-dimensional geometry of landforms and is traditionally applied to watersheds, streams, hillslopes, and other groups of terrain features. [2].

View the full article at: http://env-energy.org/drainage-analysis-of-mountainous-watersheds-in-ras-al-khaimah-emirate-uae/

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